The Green Papers: 2020 General Election
 
Copyright www.flags.net/UNST.htm 116th Congress
Senate Seats by State

This is a list of the current Senate seats and the incumbents occupying them. Not counting special elections, 33 Senate Seats are up for election on 3 November 2020.

There have been 0 deaths, 1 resignation, and 0 changes re: party breakdown in the 116th Senate.

  • Senator Martha E. McSally (Republican, Arizona Class 3) was appointed on 31 December 2018 by Governor Doug Ducey (Republican) and was sworn on 3 January 2019.
  • Senator John Hardy "Johnny" Isakson (Republican, Georgia Class 3) resigned on 31 December 2019.
  • Senator Kelly Loeffler (Republican, Georgia Class 3) was appointed on 4 December 2019, to fill the seat once it becomes vacant, by Governor Brian Porter Kemp (Republican) and was sworn on 6 January 2020.
  • Senator Mark Kelley (Democratic, Arizona Class 3) was sworn on 2 December 2020. He was first elected in a Special Election on 3 November 2020. This seat was previously held by former Senator John McCain who passed away on 25 August 2018, appointed Senators Jon Llewellyn Kyl (Republican), and Martha E. McSally (Republican).

  Alabama    Alaska    Arizona    Arkansas    California    Colorado    Connecticut    Delaware    Florida    Georgia    Hawaii    Idaho    Illinois    Indiana    Iowa    Kansas    Kentucky    Louisiana    Maine    Maryland    Massachusetts    Michigan    Minnesota    Mississippi    Missouri    Montana    Nebraska    Nevada    New Hampshire    New Jersey    New Mexico    New York    North Carolina    North Dakota    Ohio    Oklahoma    Oregon    Pennsylvania    Rhode Island    South Carolina    South Dakota    Tennessee    Texas    Utah    Vermont    Virginia    Washington    West Virginia    Wisconsin    Wyoming 

Legislative Links     Senate Electoral Classes

           

Alabama  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 1,392,076 60.10% Thomas H. "Tommy" Tuberville
FEC S0AL00230; 23 Nov 20; Tot $9,527,791; Dsb $9,107,776
Total 2,316,445 100.00%  

Alaska  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 191,112 53.90% Senator  Dan Sullivan
FEC S4AK00214; 23 Nov 20; Tot $8,899,081; Dsb $9,190,926
Total 354,587 100.00%  

Arizona  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Martha E. McSally
FEC S8AZ00221; 23 Nov 20; Tot $73,651,849; Dsb $67,809,588

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican 1,637,661 48.81% Senator  Martha E. McSally
FEC S8AZ00221; 23 Nov 20; Tot $73,651,849; Dsb $67,809,588
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican; Independent) 152 0.00% Nicholas N. Glenn
FEC S0AZ00475
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 98 0.00% Debbie Simmons
FEC S0AZ00525
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 92 0.00% John Scheiss
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 29 0.00% Patrick "Pat" Thomas
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 28 0.00% Edward Davida
FEC S8AZ00312
Total 3,355,317 100.00%  

Arkansas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 793,871 66.53% Senator  Thomas B. "Tom" Cotton
FEC S4AR00103; 23 Nov 20; Tot $9,038,404; Dsb $4,710,681
Total 1,193,261 100.00%  

California  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Arun Bhumitra
    Republican     James P. Bradley - apparently not a candidate
22 July 2019: Withdrew from the U.S. Senate contest.
Now running for U.S. House CD 33.

FEC S8CA00515
  Candidate Republican     Erin Alvarez Cruz
FEC S8CA00440
  Candidate Republican     Paul Anthony Gutierrez
FEC S2CA00849
  Candidate Republican     Sarah Liew
FEC S2CA00872
  Candidate Republican     Peter Y. Liu
FEC S2CA00880
  Candidate Republican     Erik Urbina
FEC S2CA00906

Colorado  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Republican, 1 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 1,429,492 44.18% Senator  Cory Scott Gardner
FEC S4CO00395; 23 Nov 20; Tot $26,124,844; Dsb $26,607,776
Total 3,235,789 100.00%  

Connecticut  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     John J. Flynn
FEC S2CT00264
    Republican     Robert Finley Hyde - apparently not a candidate
25 November 2019: Filed a Termination Report with the FEC.

FEC S2CT00256

Delaware  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 186,054 37.90% Lauren Elena Witzke
FEC S0DE00183; 31 Dec 20; Tot $479,515; Dsb $476,182
Total 490,935 100.00%  

Florida  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Richard L. "Rick" Scott
FEC S8FL00273

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Piotr Blass

Georgia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 2,214,979 49.39% Senator  David Alfred Perdue
3 November 2020: Received 49.73%. Advances to a 5 January 2021 runoff.

FEC S4GA11285; 16 Dec 20; Tot $86,011,611; Dsb $71,674,566
Total 4,484,902 100.00%  

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican 2,195,841 48.96% Senator  Kelly Loeffler
3 November 2020: Received 25.91%. Advances to a 5 January 2021 runoff.

FEC S0GA00526; 16 Dec 20; Tot $92,213,281; Dsb $70,957,316
Total 4,484,954 100.00%  

Idaho  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 538,446 62.62% Senator  James E. "Jim" Risch
FEC S8ID00092; 23 Nov 20; Tot $2,936,679; Dsb $1,736,492
Total 859,827 100.00%  

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Michael D. "Mike" Crapo
FEC S8ID00027

Illinois  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 2,319,870 38.87% former Lake County Sheriff Mark C. Curran, Jr.
FEC S0IL00543; 31 Dec 20; Tot $376,608; Dsb $376,608
Total 5,968,901 100.00%  

Indiana  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Mike Braun
FEC S8IN00171

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Todd Christopher Young
FEC S6IN00191

Iowa  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 864,997 50.88% Senator  Joni K. Ernst
FEC S4IA00129; 23 Nov 20; Tot $27,544,836; Dsb $28,052,581
Total 1,700,130 100.00%  

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Charles E. "Chuck" Grassley
FEC S0IA00028

Kansas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Elected Republican 727,962 53.22% Member of Congress  Roger W. "Doc" Marshall
CD 1.

FEC S0KS00315; 23 Nov 20; Tot $6,756,553; Dsb $6,966,063
Total 1,367,755 100.00%  

Kentucky  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 1,233,315 57.76% Senator  Mitch McConnell
4 August 2018: Announced that he will run for re-election in 2020.

FEC S2KY00012; 23 Nov 20; Tot $64,117,184; Dsb $57,188,492
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 70 0.00% Paul John Frangedakis
23 June 2020: Lost the Republican Primary. Now running as a write-in.

FEC S0KY00347
Total 2,135,057 100.00%  

Louisiana  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 1,228,908 59.32% Senator  William M. "Bill" Cassidy
FEC S4LA00107; 23 Nov 20; Tot $7,434,375; Dsb $8,174,543
  Candidate Republican 38,383 1.85% Dustin Murphy
FEC S0LA00352; 05 Nov 20; Tot $17,368; Dsb $13,297
Total 2,071,543 100.00%  

Maine  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Independent, 1 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 417,645 50.42% Senator  Susan Margaret Collins
FEC S6ME00159; 23 Nov 20; Tot $27,735,622; Dsb $29,032,985
Total 828,305 100.00%  

Massachusetts  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 1,177,765 32.20% Kevin J. O'Connor
FEC S0MA00232; 31 Dec 20; Tot $947,014; Dsb $884,051
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 21,134 0.58% Shiva Ayyadurai
FEC S8MA00268; 23 Nov 20; Tot $1,810,282; Dsb $1,743,261
Total 3,658,005 100.00%  

Michigan  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 2,642,233 48.22% John E. James
FEC S8MI00372; 23 Nov 20; Tot $48,278,506; Dsb $46,253,455
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 5 0.00% Robert William "Bob" Carr
FEC S4MI00298; 30 Sep 20; Tot $23,378; Dsb $18,789
Total 5,479,720 100.00%  

Minnesota  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 1,398,145 43.50% former Member of Congress  Jason Mark Lewis
Unsuccessful candidate for election Congress: 1990; first elected 2016; unsuccessful candidate for reelection: 2018.

FEC S0MN00328; 23 Nov 20; Tot $7,114,445; Dsb $6,723,641
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican)     Robert Paul "Rob" Barrett, Jr.
FEC S0MN00294; 30 Sep 20; Tot $35,975; Dsb $36,369
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican)     John L. Berman
FEC S0MN00351
Total 3,214,256 100.00%  

Mississippi  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Roger F. Wicker
FEC S8MS00196

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 709,511 54.11% Senator  Cindy Hyde-Smith
FEC S8MS00261; 23 Nov 20; Tot $3,385,209; Dsb $3,225,055
Total 1,311,354 100.00%  

Missouri  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Joshua David "Josh" Hawley
FEC S8MO00160

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Roy Blunt
FEC S0MO00183

Montana  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 333,174 55.01% Senator  Steven "Steve" Daines
FEC S2MT00096; 23 Nov 20; Tot $31,602,039; Dsb $32,809,186
Total 605,637 100.00%  

Nebraska  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 583,507 66.95% Senator  Benjamin E. "Ben" Sasse
FEC S4NE00090; 23 Nov 20; Tot $4,520,486; Dsb $3,651,462
Total 871,601 100.00%  

New Hampshire  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 326,229 40.99% Bryant S. "Corky" Messner
FEC S0NH00334; 23 Nov 20; Tot $7,025,419; Dsb $6,923,523
Total 795,914 100.00%  

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Donald C. "Don" Bolduc
FEC S0NH00326; 30 Sep 20; Tot $1,076,348; Dsb $920,644

New Jersey  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 1,817,052 40.92% Rikin "Rik" Mehta
FEC S0NJ00217; 23 Nov 20; Tot $586,707; Dsb $586,154
Total 4,440,440 100.00%  

New Mexico  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Candidate Republican 418,483 45.62% Mark V. Ronchetti
FEC S0NM00124; 23 Nov 20; Tot $3,977,143; Dsb $3,940,139
Total 917,237 100.00%  

North Carolina  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 2,665,598 48.69% Senator  Thomas Roland "Thom" Tillis
FEC S4NC00162; 23 Nov 20; Tot $23,149,932; Dsb $24,085,021
Total 5,474,952 100.00%  

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Lee Andrea Brian
FEC S2NC00273

North Dakota  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Kevin Cramer
FEC S8ND00120

Ohio  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 3  
    Republican     Senator  Robert Jones "Rob" Portman - apparently not a candidate
25 January 2021: Announced he will not seek re-election.

FEC S0OH00133
  Candidate Republican     Mark Pukita
FEC S2OH00287

Oklahoma  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 979,140 62.91% Senator  James M. "Jim" Inhofe
FEC S4OK00083; 23 Nov 20; Tot $4,667,087; Dsb $4,685,144
Total 1,556,361 100.00%  

Oregon  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 912,814 39.32% Jo Rae Perkins
FEC H6OR04203; 23 Nov 20; Tot $137,377; Dsb $122,249
Total 2,321,249 100.00%  

Rhode Island  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 164,855 33.35% Allen R. Waters
FEC S0RI00067; 23 Nov 20; Tot $29,651; Dsb $21,945
Total 494,262 100.00%  

South Carolina  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 1,369,137 54.44% Senator  Lindsey Olin Graham
FEC S0SC00149; 23 Nov 20; Tot $104,759,711; Dsb $97,803,502
Total 2,515,104 100.00%  

South Dakota  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 276,232 65.74% Senator  Marion Michael "Mike" Rounds
FEC S4SD00049; 23 Nov 20; Tot $3,657,143; Dsb $2,357,669
Total 420,219 100.00%  

Tennessee  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Marsha Blackburn
FEC S8TN00337

Class 2  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Elected Republican 1,840,926 62.20% former Ambassador to Japan Bill Hagerty
FEC S0TN00169; 23 Nov 20; Tot $15,744,133; Dsb $15,150,836
Total 2,959,761 100.00%  

Texas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz
FEC S2TX00312

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 5,962,983 53.51% Senator  John Cornyn
FEC S2TX00106; 23 Nov 20; Tot $28,375,827; Dsb $33,437,067
Total 11,144,040 100.00%  

Utah  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Willard "Mitt" Romney
FEC S8UT00176

Virginia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2  
  Candidate Republican 1,934,199 43.91% Daniel MacArthur Gade
FEC S0VA00146; 23 Nov 20; Tot $4,914,705; Dsb $4,895,249
Total 4,405,087 100.00%  

West Virginia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 2  
  Elected Republican 547,454 70.28% Senator  Shelley Moore Capito
FEC S4WV00159; 23 Nov 20; Tot $4,943,306; Dsb $3,108,615
Total 778,918 100.00%  

Wisconsin  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Republican     Senator  Ronald Harold "Ron" Johnson
FEC S0WI00197

Wyoming  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Elected Republican 198,100 71.13% former Member of Congress  Cynthia Marie Lummis
First elected to the US House: 2008; re-elected 2010, 2012, 2014; did not run in 2016.

FEC S0WY00137; 23 Nov 20; Tot $2,976,600; Dsb $2,583,083
Total 278,503 100.00%  

Political Parties    Parties appear in parenthesis and italics when a candidate receives the endorsement of a given Party and/or official sources indicate a candidate's association with a particular Party but only where the Party in question does not appear on the actual ballot as such.

Major Parties
  Democratic
  Democratic-Farmer Labor
  Republican
Major Third Parties
  Constitution
  Green
  Green Independent
  Libertarian
  Pacific Green
Other Third Parties
  Alaskan Independence
  Alliance Party
  Approval Voting
  Grassroots - Legalize Cannabis
  Independent Party Of Delaware
  Independent Party of Oregon
  Legal Marijuana Now
  Natural Law
  Progressive
  U.S. Taxpayers
  United Party
  Unity
  Willie Wilson Party
  Working Families
  Your Voice Hard
Independents
 
  Independent
  LaRouche was Right
  No Party
  No Party Affiliation
  Non Affiliated
  None
  Nonpartisan
  Of, By, For!
  Other
  Unaffiliated
Write-in/Scattered/otherwise not readily classifiable
  Scattering
  Write-in
 

Notes

Candidates for office appear on this page in italics where 'The Green Papers' does not yet have independent confirmation from a legal election authority that the person has been officially certified to appear on the ballot.


"FEC" indicates the Federal Election Commission (FEC) Campaign Finance Summary.

When available, we post each candidate's FEC identification number, the date of their most recently filed Report of Receipts and Disbursements, their "Tot" [Total Receipts (contributions received or what came in: FEC Form 3, Line 16, Column B)] and their "Dsb" [Total Disbursements (expenditures or what was spent: FEC Form 3, Line 23, Column B)]. A link is provided to the Federal Election Commission's Summary Report for those who might wish to explore the details.

If a candidate raises or spends $5,000 or less, he or she is not subject to FEC reporting requirements.


Senate Class

Class 1 seats begin their terms at noon on 3 January 2019 and end their terms on 3 January 2025. The next regular election for these seats is in 5 November 2024.
Class 2 seats began their terms at noon on 3 January 2015 and end their terms on 3 January 2021. The next regular election for these seats is 3 November 2020.
Class 3 seats began their terms at noon on 3 January 2017 and end their terms on 3 January 2023. The next regular election for these seats is 8 November 2022.

For more information on Senate Classes refer to UNITED STATES SENATE: Electoral "Classes".


Article I, Section 3, clause 2 of the Constitution of the United States reads as follows:

"Immediately after [the Senate of the United States] shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year..."

Pursuant to this Constitutional provision, a three-Senator Committee was appointed by the Senate on 11 May 1789 to come up with a plan to carry out the requirements of that provision; this Committee reported to the Senate on 14 May 1789 a plan to divide the then 20 Senators (there were 10 of the 13 original States represented in the Senate at the time- each having 2 Senators: North Carolina and Rhode Island had yet to ratify the U.S. Constitution, while New York had so ratified but had failed to elect Senators as of that date) into the requisite three electoral Classes: under this plan, three groups of Senators (set up in such a way so as no State had its two Senators in the same group) were to be listed and the first Senator on each list (a list which was set up geographically north-to-south in the manner in which the Electoral Vote for President was counted before Congress at that time, so that two of the first Senators on these lists were from New Hampshire and the third was the first Senator in alphabetical order from Massachusetts) was to each blindly draw a piece of paper numbered either "1", "2" or "3" out of a box in the possession of the Secretary of the Senate. This plan being agreeable to the Senate and so approved, the drawing of lots in this manner was carried out the following day (15 May 1789)- such lot drawing ultimately determining that, to start with, Classes 1 and 2 were to have 7 Senators each and Class 3 was to have only 6 Senators.

When New York finally seated its two Senators during the ensuing Summer, there was another lot drawing (actually a double-lot drawing) on 28 July 1789 to determine the Classes for these seats: since one of the seats had to be Class 3 to make it equal in number to that of the other two Classes so far, the two New York Senators each blindly drew between two pieces of paper, one marked "3", the other which was blank- after this, there was a second lot drawing in which the New York Senator who had drawn the blank paper blindly drew again between two pieces of paper marked "1" and "2": he drew "1" so that New York would henceforth have Senators of electoral Classes 1 and 3.

When North Carolina seated its two Senators after ratifying the Constitution on 21 November 1789, there was yet another lot drawing (on 29 January 1790) in which North Carolina's two Senators each blindly drew between pieces of paper marked "2" and "3" (since there were now 12 States and, thus, 24 Senators: 24 being equally divisible by 3, there would now have to be 8 Senators in each of the three Classes to fulfill the Constitutional provision that, as nearly as was practicable, one third of the Senate be elected every second year).

After Rhode Island- the last of the 13 original States- finally ratified the Constitution on 29 May 1790 and subsequently seated its two Senators that Summer, there was yet one more lot drawing in the First Congress (on 25 June 1790) in which Rhode Island's two Senators blindly drew between pieces of paper marked "1", "2" and "3": one Senator drew "2", the other drew "1"- thereby determining electoral Classes 1 and 2 as those for the Senators from this State. When Vermont was admitted to the Union as the 14th state on 4 March 1791, there was again a double lot drawing as there had been for New York. From that day until this, whenever a new State has been admitted to the Union, these types of lot drawings (the type determined by the necessity of keeping the number of Senators in each electoral Class as close to one third as possible at the time of said lot drawing) between the new State's first Senators is held before the Senate to determine in just which of the three electoral Classes that State's Senate seats will be placed from then on.


 


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