Original posting: 2008oct29, Last update: 2017jan09
Incumbent President seeking re-election in boldface
|Year [Election No.]||"Appointed" Presidential Electors as pledged via the General Election||Final ELECTORAL VOTE as counted and tabulated by the U.S. Congress|
|DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN presidential nominee||NATIONAL REPUBLICAN presidential nominee||Other pledged Electors||Person declared PRESIDENT-ELECT||other Electoral Votes|
|1828 ||Jackson 178||Adams 83||---||JACKSON 178||Adams 83|
|1832 ||Jackson 219||Clay 49||Floyd [Independent ("Nullifier") Democrat] 11; Wirt [Anti-Masonic] 7||JACKSON 219||Clay 49; Floyd 11; Wirt 7|
|DEMOCRATIC presidential nominee||WHIG presidential nominee|
|1836 ||Van Buren 170||[total WHIG Electors] 124||---||VAN BUREN 170||Harrison 73; White 26; Webster 14; Mangum 11|
|1840 ||Van Buren 60||Harrison 234||---||HARRISON 234||Van Buren 60|
|1844 ||Polk 170||Clay 105||---||POLK 170||Clay 105|
|1848 ||Cass 127||Taylor 163||---||TAYLOR 163||Cass 127|
|1852 ||Pierce 254||Scott 42||---||PIERCE 254||Scott 42|
|REPUBLICAN presidential nominee|
|1856 ||Buchanan 174||Fremont 114||Fillmore [American/Whig] 8||BUCHANAN 174||Fremont 114; Fillmore 8|
|1860 ||Breckinridge [Southern wing] 72; Douglas [Northern wing] 12||Lincoln 180||Bell [Constitutional Union] 39||LINCOLN 180||Breckinridge 72; Bell 39; Douglas 12|
|1864 ||McClellan 21||Lincoln 213||---||LINCOLN 212||McClellan 21; not voting 1|
|1868 ||Seymour 80||Grant 214||---||GRANT 214||Seymour 80|
|1872 ||Greeley 66||Grant 300||---||GRANT 286||Hendricks 42; Brown 18; Jenkins 2; Davis 1; not counted 17|
|1876 ||Tilden 184||Hayes 165||20 in dispute||HAYES 185||Tilden 184|
|1880 ||Hancock 155||Garfield 214||---||GARFIELD 214||Hancock 155|
|1884 ||Cleveland 219||Blaine 182||---||CLEVELAND 219||Blaine 182|
|1888 ||Cleveland 168||Harrison 233||---||HARRISON 233||Cleveland 168|
|1892 ||Cleveland 277||Harrison 145||Weaver [People's Party ("Populist")] 22||CLEVELAND 277||Harrison 145; Weaver 22|
|1896 ||Bryan 176||McKinley 271||---||McKINLEY 271||Bryan 176|
|1900 ||Bryan 155||McKinley 292||---||McKINLEY 292||Bryan 155|
|1904 ||Parker 140||Roosevelt 336||---||ROOSEVELT 336||Parker 140|
|1908 ||Bryan 162||Taft 321||---||TAFT 321||Bryan 162|
|1912 ||Wilson 435||Taft 8||Roosevelt [Progressive ("Bull Moose") Republican] 88||WILSON 435||Roosevelt 88; Taft 8|
|1916 ||Wilson 277||Hughes 254||---||WILSON 277||Hughes 254|
|1920 ||Cox 127||Harding 404||---||HARDING 404||Cox 127|
|1924 ||Davis 136||Coolidge 382||LaFollette [Progressive] 13||COOLIDGE 382||Davis 136; LaFollette 13|
|1928 ||Smith 87||Hoover 444||---||HOOVER 444||Smith 87|
|1932 ||Roosevelt 472||Hoover 59||---||ROOSEVELT 472||Hoover 59|
|1936 ||Roosevelt 523||Landon 8||---||ROOSEVELT 523||Landon 8|
|1940 ||Roosevelt 449||Willkie 82||---||ROOSEVELT 449||Willkie 82|
|1944 ||Roosevelt 432||Dewey 99||---||ROOSEVELT 432||Dewey 99|
|1948 ||Truman 304||Dewey 189||Thurmond [State's Rights ("Dixiecrat")] 38||TRUMAN 303||Dewey 189; Thurmond 39|
|1952 ||Stevenson 89||Eisenhower 442||---||EISENHOWER 442||Stevenson 89|
|1956 ||Stevenson 74||Eisenhower 457||---||EISENHOWER 457||Stevenson 73; Jones 1|
|1960 ||Kennedy 303||Nixon 220||['Unpledged' Democrat] 14||KENNEDY 303||Nixon 219; Byrd 15|
|1964 ||Johnson 486||Goldwater 52||---||JOHNSON 486||Goldwater 52|
|1968 ||Humphrey 191||Nixon 302||Wallace [American Independent] 45||NIXON 301||Humphrey 191; Wallace 46|
|1972 ||McGovern 17||Nixon 521||---||NIXON 520||McGovern 17; Hospers [Libertarian] 1|
|1976 ||Carter 297||Ford 241||---||CARTER 297||Ford 240; Reagan 1|
|1980 ||Carter 49||Reagan 489||---||REAGAN 489||Carter 49|
|1984 ||Mondale 13||Reagan 525||---||REAGAN 525||Mondale 13|
|1988 ||Dukakis 112||Bush 426||---||BUSH 426||Dukakis 111; Bentsen 1|
|1992 ||Clinton 370||Bush 168||---||CLINTON 370||Bush 168|
|1996 ||Clinton 379||Dole 159||---||CLINTON 379||Dole 159|
|2000 ||Gore 267||Bush 271||---||BUSH 271||Gore 266; not voting 1|
|2004 ||Kerry 252||Bush 286||---||BUSH 286||Kerry 251; Edwards 1|
|2008 ||Obama 365||McCain 173||---||OBAMA 365||McCain 173|
|2012 ||Obama 332||Romney 206||---||OBAMA 332||Romney 206|
|2016 ||Clinton 232||Trump 306||---||TRUMP 304||Clinton 227; Powell 3; Kasich 1; Paul 1; Sanders 1; Spotted Eagle 1|
|Year [Election No.]||DEMOCRATIC presidential nominee||REPUBLICAN presidential nominee||Other pledged Electors||Person declared PRESIDENT-ELECT||other Electoral Votes|
|"Appointed" Presidential Electors as pledged in the General Election||Final ELECTORAL VOTE as counted and tabulated by the U.S. Congress|
This table begins with the Presidential Election of 1828 because, first of all, "appointing" of Presidential Electors via Popular Vote was well established in the vast majority of the States of the American Union by this time and, secondly, because this Election is truly the origin of the modern American Two-(Major) Party System. The original two national Parties were the Federalists and the (old) Republicans which contested the earliest Elections after the retirement of President Washington beginning in 1796; by the start of the 1820s, however, the Federalists were virtually moribund as a national Party and, in 1824, all the candidates for the Presidency viably contending for the pledges of Presidential Electors that year were ostensibly (old) Republicans. In that Election of 1824, Andrew Jackson won the most Electoral Votes but was still short of a majority; John Quincy Adams (who had come in second to Jackson in the Electoral Vote) was subsequently elected President by the U.S. House of Representatives: the (old) Republicans, soon thereafter, split into "Adams" and "Jackson" factions, with the "Jackson" wing becoming the Democratic Republicans (later, Democrats) and the "Adams" wing becoming the National Republicans (later, Whigs) as a direct result of the campaign for the Presidency between the two men in 1828, hence this Election as the starting point for the above table.
1828: In this Presidential Election, the State legislatures of both DELAWARE and SOUTH CAROLINA "appointed" (and, by extension, also pledged) their respective Presidential Electors; all other States which participated in this Election "appointed" (thus, also pledged) their respective Electors via Popular Vote.
1832 through 1860: Throughout this period, the legislature of the State of SOUTH CAROLINA "appointed" (and, by extension, also pledged) that State's Presidential Electors; all other States which participated in these Elections "appointed" (thus, also pledged) their respective Electors via Popular Vote.
1836: For this Election, the WHIG Party nominated different candidates for President in different sections of the Nation. The working strategy here was that these "favorite son" candidates would be viewed more favorably in their home regions than other possible Whig candidates might be, increasing the chances of the Whigs winning over voters nationwide; if the total number of Electors for the Whigs- even with the Party's several "nominees" for President- could exceed a majority of the total Electoral Vote, no single Whig candidate would be able to gain a majority but the Election would then be thrown into the Whig-controlled U.S. House of Representatives in any event. When Democrat Van Buren emerged with a majority of the Electoral Vote anyway, however, this strategy was mooted (and, at least somewhat ironically, because Van Buren's running mate Richard Johnson could not gain a majority of the Electoral Vote for Vice President, it was the Democrat-controlled U.S. Senate [for the only time in its history] that would choose the Vice President coming out of this Election).
1864: 1 Republican Elector from NEVADA never ever cast his vote, reducing Republican Lincoln's Electoral Vote by 1 from the number of Presidential Electors originally pledged to him. This election, by the way, was the very first Presidential Election in which all the States participating "appointed" (and, by extension, pledged) Presidential Electors via Popular Vote.
1868: In this Election, the legislature of the State of FLORIDA "appointed" (and, by extension, also pledged) that State's Presidential Electors; all other States that participated in this Election "appointed" (thus, also pledged) their respective Electors via Popular Vote.
1872: Democrat Greeley died on 29 November 1872, less than a month after the General Election in which 66 Presidential Electors had been pledged to him and less than a week before the Electors themselves were scheduled to meet in their respective States and cast their votes: this accounts for the divided final Electoral Vote for Democratic candidates other than Greeley re: this Election in the above table (the total of such votes equaling 63 because 3 votes cast by Electors for the now-deceased Greeley were among the 17 Electoral Votes not counted by Congress later on [on the grounds that, Greeley being dead, they had not been cast for a "person" as required by the U.S. Constitution]). 14 Electoral Votes for Republican incumbent President Grant (6 from ARKANSAS and 8 from LOUISIANA) were also not counted by Congress because of disputes involving the accuracy of the election returns from those two States (a foreshadowing of the very next Presidential Election).
1876: The (in)famous 'Disputed Election': 20 Electoral Votes were in dispute- 19 total from three Southern States (FLORIDA, LOUISIANA and SOUTH CAROLINA) that had sent dual sets of election returns (and the votes cast by two rival slates of Electors from each of these States) to be counted by Congress and 1 involving a Republican Hayes Elector from OREGON who had accepted a job as a Postmaster (thus, he was seemingly in violation of the constitutional admonition that "no... person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States shall be appointed an Elector" [Article II, Section 1, clause 2 of the U.S. Constitution]). Because each house of Congress was controlled by a different Major Party, a baser purely political solution along Party lines ("to he who has the votes goes the victory") was not even possible. As a result, Congress hastily put together a bipartisan one-time-only 'Electoral Commission' to sort things out; although bipartisan in makeup, this Commission ended up with a majority of 1 for the Republicans and all disputes were ultimately decided, by Party line vote of the Commission, in favor of Hayes who, thereby, was eventually declared to have been elected President (Congress had required itself to accept the Commission's decisions in the enabling legislation that first set up this Commission). Also, in this Election of 1876, the legislature of the State of COLORADO "appointed" (and, by extension, also pledged) that State's Presidential Electors; all other States that participated in this Election "appointed" (thus, also pledged) their respective Electors via Popular Vote.
1948: re: State's Rights "Dixiecrat" Thurmond receiving 1 more Electoral Vote originally pledged to Democrat Truman, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
1956: re: 'Jones 1' at the expense of an Electoral Vote originally pledged to Democrat Stevenson, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
1960: 14 'Unpledged' Democratic Presidential Electors (6 from ALABAMA and 8 from MISSISSIPPI) were "appointed" (and, by extension, pledged) in this General Election: all 14 of these cast their presidential Electoral votes for Senator Harry Byrd of Virginia; re: Byrd receiving 1 more Electoral Vote originally pledged to Republican Nixon, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
1968: re: American Independent Wallace receiving 1 more Electoral Vote originally pledged to Republican Nixon, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
1972: re: 'Hospers [Libertarian] 1' at the expense of an Electoral Vote originally pledged to Republican Nixon, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
1976: re: 'Reagan 1' at the expense of an Electoral Vote originally pledged to Republican Ford, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
1988: re: 'Bentsen 1' at the expense of an Electoral Vote originally pledged to Democrat Dukakis, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
2000: re: 'not voting 1' at the expense of an Electoral Vote originally pledged to Democrat Gore, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
2004: re: 'Edwards 1' at the expense of an Electoral Vote originally pledged to Democrat Kerry, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.
2016: re: 'Powell 3; Sanders 1; Spotted Eagle 1' at the expense of 5 Electoral Votes originally pledged to Democrat Hillary Clinton and 'Kasich 1; Paul 1' at the expense of 2 Electoral Votes originally pledged to Republican Donald Trump, please see our page on so-called FAITHLESS ELECTORS.