The Green Papers: 2020 General Election
 
Copyright www.flags.net/UNST.htm 116th Congress
Senate Seats by State

This is a list of the current Senate seats and the incumbents occupying them. Not counting special elections, 33 Senate Seats are up for election on 3 November 2020.

There have been 0 deaths, 1 resignation, and 0 changes re: party breakdown in the 116th Senate.

  • Senator Martha E. McSally (Republican, Arizona Class 3) was appointed on 31 December 2018 by Governor Doug Ducey (Republican) and was sworn on 3 January 2019.
  • Senator John Hardy "Johnny" Isakson (Republican, Georgia Class 3) resigned on 31 December 2019.
  • Senator Kelly Loeffler (Republican, Georgia Class 3) was appointed on 4 December 2019, to fill the seat once it becomes vacant, by Governor Brian Porter Kemp (Republican) and was sworn on 6 January 2020.

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Legislative Links     Senate Electoral Classes

           

Alabama  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Doug Jones
First elected in a Special Election 12 December 2017 [re: resignation of Senator Jefferson Beauregard "Jeff" Sessions, III (Republican) who was confirmed as Attorney General in the Trump administration.]
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 1,379,222 60.21% Thomas H. "Tommy" Tuberville
FEC S0AL00230; 14 Oct 20; Tot $8,242,486; Dsb $6,746,628
  Candidate Democratic 907,484 39.62% Senator  Doug Jones
FEC S0AL00156; 14 Oct 20; Tot $26,735,100; Dsb $24,851,770
  Candidate Scattering 3,836 0.17% Write-In
 

Senator Jefferson Beauregard "Jeff" Sessions, III (Republican) who was first elected in 1996 and re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2014 was confirmed as Attorney General in the Trump administration on 8 February 2017 by the U.S. Senate, 52-47.
9 February 2017: Governor Robert J. Bentley (Republican) named state Attorney General Luther Strange to the seat.
On 9 February 2017, Governor Robert J. Bentley (Republican) called a special election concurrent with the regular 6 November 2018 election to fill the remaining 2 years of the term.
18 April 2017: Governor Kay Ivey (Republican) called a Special Election for Tuesday 12 December 2017. The primary is Tuesday 15 August 2017. If no candidate receives at least 50% of the vote in the primary, a Tuesday 26 September 2017 runoff will be held between the top two vote-getters.
12 December 2017: Doug Jones (Democratic) is elected in a Special Election.
28 December 2017: Doug Jones (Democratic) is certified as the winner.
3 January 2018: Doug Jones (Democratic) is sworn.

Total 2,290,542 100.00%  

Alaska  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Dan Sullivan
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 190,772 53.93% Senator  Dan Sullivan
FEC S4AK00214; 14 Oct 20; Tot $8,071,244; Dsb $7,057,349
  Candidate Democratic; (Nonpartisan) 145,813 41.22% Al Gross
FEC S0AK00196; 14 Oct 20; Tot $16,904,624; Dsb $13,911,406
  Candidate Alaskan Independence 16,697 4.72% John Wayne Howe
FEC S0AK00238
  Candidate Scattering 434 0.12% Write-in
  Candidate Write-in; (Non Affiliated)     Sid Hill
FEC S0AK00162
  Candidate Write-in; (Green)     Jed Party Whittaker
FEC S2AK00044
Total 353,716 100.00%  

Arizona  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 3
Seat up for special election
Special Election
Republican
Seat up for special election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Special Election - Caused by the 31 December 2018 resignation of appointed Senator Jon Llewellyn Kyl (Republican). A lawsuit [Tedards v Ducey, 2:18cv-4241] in in progress to determine if Governor Doug Ducey (Republican) has the authority to postpone the special election until November 2020.
27 June 2019: The U.S. District Court upheld Arizona's decision to not hold a special election until November 2020 to fill John McCain's Senate vacant seat by special election.
27 February 2020: The Ninth Circuit upheld Arizona's decision to not hold a special election (Tedards v Ducey, 19-16308) until November 2020.
  Elected Democratic 1,670,127 51.32% Mark Kelly
FEC S0AZ00350; 14 Oct 20; Tot $89,792,547; Dsb $78,790,737
  Candidate Republican 1,584,386 48.68% Senator  Martha E. McSally
FEC S8AZ00221; 14 Oct 20; Tot $56,861,953; Dsb $48,672,920
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Mohammad "Mike Obama" Arif
FEC S0AZ00384
  Candidate Write-in; (Independent)     Christopher "Chris" Beckett
FEC S0AZ00442
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Adam Chilton
FEC S0AZ00459
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican)     Edward Davida
FEC S8AZ00312
  Candidate Write-in; (Independent)     William "Will" Decker
  Candidate Write-in; (Libertarian)     Matthew "Doc" Dorcester
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican; Independent)     Nicholas N. Glenn
FEC S0AZ00475
  Candidate Write-in; (Independent)     Matthew Haupt
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Perry Kapadia
FEC S0AZ00483
  Candidate Write-in; (Independent)     Benjamin Rodriguez
FEC S0AZ00491
  Candidate Write-in; (United Party)     Joshua Rodriguez
FEC S0AZ00509
  Candidate Write-in; (Independent)     Frank Saenz
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican)     John Scheiss
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican)     Debbie Simmons
FEC S0AZ00525
  Candidate Write-in; (None)     Jim Stevens
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Buzz Stewart
FEC S0AZ00533
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican)     Patrick "Pat" Thomas
Total 3,254,513 100.00%  

Arkansas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Thomas B. "Tom" Cotton
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 792,915 66.52% Senator  Thomas B. "Tom" Cotton
FEC S4AR00103; 14 Oct 20; Tot $8,353,795; Dsb $3,908,499
  Candidate Libertarian 399,093 33.48% Ricky Dale Harrington, Jr.
FEC S0AR00226; 14 Oct 20; Tot $68,191; Dsb $22,179
Total 1,192,008 100.00%  

Colorado  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Republican, 1 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Cory Scott Gardner
First elected: 2014.
Also served in the U.S. House: 2011-2015.
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic 1,730,683 53.50% former Governor John W. Hickenlooper
First elected Governor of Colorado: 2010; re-elected: 2014

FEC S0CO00575; 14 Oct 20; Tot $39,838,223; Dsb $35,724,984
  Candidate Republican 1,429,075 44.18% Senator  Cory Scott Gardner
FEC S4CO00395; 14 Oct 20; Tot $23,860,613; Dsb $21,341,880
  Candidate Libertarian 56,219 1.74% Raymon Anthony Doane
FEC S0CO00674
  Candidate Approval Voting 9,817 0.30% Daniel "Dan" Doyle
FEC S0CO00732
  Candidate Unity 8,966 0.28% Stephan E. "Sekú" Evans
FEC S0CO00708
  Candidate Write-in; (Green)     Bruce E. Lohmiller
FEC S8CO00230
  Candidate Write-in; (Unaffiliated)     Michael Sanchez Atlas
FEC S0CO00740
  Candidate Write-in; (Unaffiliated)     Danny Skelly
FEC S0CO00757
Total 3,234,760 100.00%  

Delaware  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Christopher A. "Chris" Coons
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected in a special election: 2010 (to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator Joe Biden [Democrat] in January 2009 in order to accede to the Vice-Presidency of the United States; he replaces Senator Edward E. "Ted" Kaufman [Democrat] who had been appointed by the Governor of DELAWARE to temporarily fill the vacancy.). Re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic 291,804 59.44% Senator  Christopher A. "Chris" Coons
FEC S0DE00092; 14 Oct 20; Tot $5,731,468; Dsb $3,964,769
  Candidate Republican 186,054 37.90% Lauren Elena Witzke
FEC S0DE00183; 14 Oct 20; Tot $348,784; Dsb $286,657
  Candidate Independent Party Of Delaware 7,833 1.60% Mark William Turley
FEC S0DE00167
  Candidate Libertarian 5,244 1.07% Nadine M. Frost
FEC S8DE00160
Total 490,935 100.00%  

Georgia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  David Alfred Perdue
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated -
Since no one received a majority of the vote in the 3 November General Election, the top two vote-getters advance to a 5 January 2021 runoff.
  Candidate Republican 2,462,617 49.73% Senator  David Alfred Perdue
3 November 2020: Advances to a 5 January 2021 runoff.

FEC S4GA11285; 14 Oct 20; Tot $17,941,295; Dsb $13,806,005
  Candidate Democratic 2,374,519 47.95% T. Jonathan "Jon" Ossoff
3 November 2020: Advances to a 5 January 2021 runoff.

FEC S8GA00180; 14 Oct 20; Tot $32,827,992; Dsb $28,631,712
    Libertarian 115,039 2.32% Shane Hazel - lost primary
FEC S0GA00575
Total 4,952,175 100.00%  

Class 3
Seat up for special election
Special Election
 
Seat up for special election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Special Election - All candidates (regardless of party affiliation) run on a single ballot. If one candidate receives more than 50% of the vote that candidate is elected. Otherwise, the top two vote-getters advance to a runoff.
Since no one received a majority of the vote in the 3 November nonpartisan special election, the top two vote-getters advance to a 5 January 2021 runoff.
  Candidate Democratic 1,617,035 32.90% Raphael Warnock
3 November 2020: Advances to a 5 January 2021 runoff.

FEC S0GA00559; 14 Oct 20; Tot $21,971,506; Dsb $16,452,660
  Candidate Republican 1,273,214 25.91% Senator  Kelly Loeffler
3 November 2020: Advances to a 5 January 2021 runoff.

FEC S0GA00526; 14 Oct 20; Tot $28,249,317; Dsb $22,319,207
    Republican 980,454 19.95% Member of Congress  Douglas Allen "Doug" Collins - lost primary
Congressional District 9

FEC S0GA00567; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,330,698; Dsb $4,864,208
    Democratic 324,118 6.60% Deborah A. Jackson - lost primary
FEC S0GA00591; 14 Oct 20; Tot $18,788; Dsb $16,004
    Democratic 136,021 2.77% Matthew "Matt" Lieberman - lost primary
Son of former Senator Joseph Lieberman

FEC S0GA00468; 14 Oct 20; Tot $1,524,878; Dsb $1,320,347
    Democratic 106,767 2.17% Tamara Johnson-Shealey - lost primary
FEC S0GA00484; 14 Oct 20; Tot $56,475; Dsb $57,878
    Democratic 94,406 1.92% Jamesia James - lost primary
FEC S0GA00609
    Republican 51,592 1.05% Derrick E. Grayson - lost primary
FEC S0GA00658; 14 Oct 20; Tot $18,061; Dsb $13,202
    Democratic 44,945 0.91% Joy Felicia Slade - lost primary
FEC S0GA00708
    Republican 44,335 0.90% Annette Davis Jackson - lost primary
FEC S0GA00716
    Republican 40,349 0.82% Kandiss Sharpe Taylor - lost primary
FEC S0GA00641; 14 Oct 20; Tot $27,833; Dsb $21,833
    Republican 36,176 0.74% Arthur Wayne "Wayne" Johnson - lost primary
FEC S0GA00492; 14 Oct 20; Tot $146,275; Dsb $122,129
    Libertarian 35,431 0.72% Brian Richard Slowinski - lost primary
FEC S0GA00633; 31 Mar 20; Tot $5,220; Dsb $5,220
    Democratic 28,687 0.58% Richard Dien Winfield - lost primary
FEC S0GA00542; 14 Oct 20; Tot $58,208; Dsb $43,733
    Democratic 26,333 0.54% former state Senator Edward J. "Ed" Tarver - lost primary
FEC S0GA00583; 14 Oct 20; Tot $270,535; Dsb $261,011
    Independent 17,954 0.37% Allen Buckley - lost primary
FEC S4GA11103; 14 Oct 20; Tot $23,388; Dsb $19,400
    Green 15,293 0.31% John "Green" Fortuin - lost primary
FEC S0GA00617; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,661; Dsb $6,210
    Independent 14,640 0.30% Elbert "Al" Bartell - lost primary
FEC S0GA00443; 14 Oct 20; Tot $7,234; Dsb $6,856
    Independent 13,318 0.27% state Representative  Valencia Stovall - lost primary
FEC S0GA00625; 14 Oct 20; Tot $20,944; Dsb $20,346
    Independent 13,293 0.27% Michael Todd Greene - lost primary
FEC S0GA00724
    Write-in     Hapeville Board of Appeals Member Rod Mack - lost primary
FEC S0GA00732
 28 August 2019: Senator John Hardy "Johnny" Isakson (Republican) announced his resignation effective 31 December 2019.
Governor Brian Porter Kemp (Republican) will appoint a replacement to fill the seat until a special election is held for the remaining 2 years of the term.
21 February 2020: Governor Brian Kemp set the data for the Special Election to 3 November.
24 February 2020: Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger set the qualifying window from 2 to 6 March.
Total 4,914,361 100.00%  

Idaho  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  James E. "Jim" Risch
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2008; re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 537,445 62.58% Senator  James E. "Jim" Risch
FEC S8ID00092; 14 Oct 20; Tot $2,717,880; Dsb $1,295,240
  Candidate Democratic 285,864 33.29% former state Representative Paulette Jordan
FEC S0ID00180; 14 Oct 20; Tot $944,654; Dsb $706,663
  Candidate Independent 25,329 2.95% Natalie M. Fleming
FEC S0ID00172
  Candidate Constitution 10,188 1.19% Ray J. Writz
FEC S6ID00104; 30 Sep 20; Tot $4,140; Dsb $3,196
Total 858,826 100.00%  

Illinois  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Richard J. "Dick" Durbin
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 1996; re-elected: 2002, 2008, 2014
[also served in U.S. House- elected: 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994]
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic 2,888,094 52.99% Senator  Richard J. "Dick" Durbin
FEC S6IL00151; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,757,498; Dsb $6,665,210
  Candidate Republican 2,196,246 40.30% former Lake County Sheriff Mark C. Curran, Jr.
FEC S0IL00543; 14 Oct 20; Tot $314,246; Dsb $301,443
  Candidate Willie Wilson Party 215,573 3.96% Willie F. Wilson
FEC S0IL00568; 14 Oct 20; Tot $3,076,000; Dsb $1,065,994
  Candidate Libertarian 100,605 1.85% Daniel "Danny" Malouf
FEC S0IL00618; 14 Oct 20; Tot $11,826; Dsb $10,872
  Candidate Green 49,385 0.91% David N. Black
FEC S0IL00634
  Candidate Write-in     Kevin Keely
  Candidate Write-in     Albert A. Schaal
  Candidate Write-in     Lowell Martin Seida
Total 5,449,903 100.00%  

Iowa  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Joni K. Ernst
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 864,997 51.74% Senator  Joni K. Ernst
FEC S4IA00129; 14 Oct 20; Tot $20,852,035; Dsb $19,721,548
  Candidate Democratic 754,859 45.15% Theresa Greenfield
FEC S0IA00176; 14 Oct 20; Tot $47,539,579; Dsb $43,766,774
  Candidate Libertarian 36,961 2.21% Rick Stewart
FEC S4IA00194; 14 Oct 20; Tot $8,330; Dsb $12,435
  Candidate No Party 13,800 0.83% Suzanne Herzog
FEC S0IA00184; 14 Oct 20; Tot $17,863; Dsb $17,525
  Candidate Scattering 1,211 0.07% Write-in
Total 1,671,828 100.00%  

Kansas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Open
Republican Senator  Pat Roberts
First elected: 1996; re-elected: 2002, 2008, 2014
[also served in U.S. House- elected: 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994]
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Open Seat - 4 January 2019: "I will not be a candidate in 2020 for a fifth Senate term."
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Elected Republican 710,733 53.50% Member of Congress  Roger W. "Doc" Marshall
CD 1.

FEC S0KS00315; 14 Oct 20; Tot $5,993,934; Dsb $5,175,693
  Candidate Democratic 552,234 41.57% state Senator  Barbara Bollier
FEC S0KS00323; 14 Oct 20; Tot $24,492,827; Dsb $19,679,333
  Candidate Libertarian 65,556 4.93% Jason Buckley
FEC S0KS00356
Total 1,328,523 100.00%  

Kentucky  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Mitch McConnell
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 1984; re-elected: 1990, 1996, 2002, 2008, 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 1,233,315 57.76% Senator  Mitch McConnell
4 August 2018: Announced that he will run for re-election in 2020.

FEC S2KY00012; 14 Oct 20; Tot $51,181,156; Dsb $42,975,425
  Candidate Democratic 816,257 38.23% Amy McGrath
FEC S0KY00339; 14 Oct 20; Tot $90,026,047; Dsb $75,280,930
  Candidate Libertarian 85,386 4.00% Stephen Bradley "Brad" Barron
FEC S0KY00396; 30 Jun 20; Tot $112,187; Dsb $16,601
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 70 0.00% Paul John Frangedakis
23 June 2020: Lost the Republican Primary. Now running as a write-in.

FEC S0KY00347
  Candidate Write-in 18 0.00% Daniel Cobble
  Candidate Write-in 9 0.00% Randall Lee "Randy" Teegarden
FEC S0KY00529
  Candidate Write-in 1 0.00% Harold H. "Hal" Fitzpatrick
  Candidate Write-in 1 0.00% Demetra Jefferson Wysinger
Total 2,135,057 100.00%  

Louisiana  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  William M. "Bill" Cassidy
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
  Elected Republican 1,228,908 59.32% Senator  William M. "Bill" Cassidy
FEC S4LA00107; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,921,016; Dsb $6,420,296
  Candidate Democratic 394,049 19.02% Shreveport Mayor  Adrian Perkins
FEC S0LA00386; 14 Oct 20; Tot $1,770,041; Dsb $1,223,982
  Candidate Democratic 229,814 11.09% Derrick "Champ" Edwards
FEC S6LA00342
  Candidate Democratic 55,710 2.69% Antoine Pierce
FEC S0LA00311; 30 Sep 20; Tot $93,526; Dsb $34,003
  Candidate Republican 38,383 1.85% Dustin Murphy
FEC S0LA00352; 14 Oct 20; Tot $12,857; Dsb $8,941
  Candidate Democratic 36,962 1.78% David Drew "Drew" Knight
FEC S0LA00402
  Candidate No Party 17,362 0.84% Beryl Billiot
FEC S6LA00441; 14 Oct 20; Tot $5,400; Dsb $5,375
  Candidate No Party 16,518 0.80% John Paul Bourgeois
FEC S0LA00360; 30 Sep 20; Tot $3,500; Dsb $3,400
  Candidate Democratic 14,454 0.70% Peter Wenstrup
FEC S0LA00345; 14 Oct 20; Tot $127,862; Dsb $108,160
  Candidate Libertarian 11,321 0.55% Aaron Charles Sigler
FEC S0LA00394; 13 Oct 20; Tot $3,298; Dsb $2,647
  Candidate Independent 7,811 0.38% M. V. "Vinny" Mendoza
FEC S6LA00409
  Candidate Other 7,680 0.37% Melinda Mary Price
aka Melinda Price-Bedi

FEC S0LA00428
  Candidate No Party 5,804 0.28% Jamar "Doc" Myers-Montgomery
FEC S0LA00303
  Candidate No Party 3,954 0.19% Reno Jean Daret, III
FEC S0LA00410
  Candidate Other 2,813 0.14% Alexander "Xan" John
FEC S0LA00378
Total 2,071,543 100.00%  

Maine  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Independent, 1 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Susan Margaret Collins
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 1996; re-elected: 2002, 2008, 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 415,796 51.15% Senator  Susan Margaret Collins
FEC S6ME00159; 14 Oct 20; Tot $24,187,447; Dsb $22,385,272
  Candidate Democratic 343,348 42.24% state Representative  Sara I. Gideon
FEC S0ME00111; 14 Oct 20; Tot $69,521,849; Dsb $48,852,757
  Candidate Independent; (Green Independent) 40,144 4.94% Lisa Jill Savage
24 February 2020: Insufficient petition signatures for Green Independent ballot access. Running as an Independent.

FEC S0ME00137; 14 Oct 20; Tot $186,503; Dsb $136,200
  Candidate Independent 13,542 1.67% Max Patrick Linn
FEC S8ME00163; 14 Oct 20; Tot $493,473; Dsb $489,934
  Candidate Write-in     Tiffany L. Bond
Moderate MaineRaising Independent

FEC S0ME00160
  Candidate Write-in     Ian Kenton Engelman
Facts Matter
  Candidate Write-in; (Independent)     Douglas E. "Doug" Fogg
Total 812,830 100.00%  

Massachusetts  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Edward John "Ed" Markey
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected in a Special Election: 25 June 2013 (re: resignation of Senator John Forbes Kerry (Democratic) to become Secretary of State); re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic 2,293,464 66.48% Senator  Edward John "Ed" Markey
FEC S4MA00028; 14 Oct 20; Tot $11,477,451; Dsb $12,299,057
  Candidate Republican 1,156,276 33.52% Kevin J. O'Connor
FEC S0MA00232; 14 Oct 20; Tot $804,294; Dsb $684,102
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican)     Shiva Ayyadurai
FEC S8MA00268; 14 Oct 20; Tot $1,794,610; Dsb $1,676,818
  Candidate Write-in; (Libertarian)     Vermin Supreme
Total 3,449,740 100.00%  

Michigan  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Gary C. Peters
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014.
Previously served in the U.S. House: 2009-2015.
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic 2,734,568 49.90% Senator  Gary C. Peters
FEC S4MI00355; 14 Oct 20; Tot $40,696,761; Dsb $38,330,555
  Candidate Republican 2,642,233 48.22% John E. James
FEC S8MI00372; 14 Oct 20; Tot $37,248,331; Dsb $31,543,250
  Candidate U.S. Taxpayers 50,597 0.92% Valerie L. Willis
FEC S0MI00205
  Candidate Green 39,217 0.72% Marcia Squier
FEC S8MI00430
  Candidate Natural Law 13,093 0.24% Doug Dern
FEC S2MI00144
  Candidate Write-in 7 0.00% Leonard Paul Gadzinski
  Candidate Write-in; (Republican) 5 0.00% Robert William "Bob" Carr
FEC S4MI00298; 31 Mar 20; Tot $23,283; Dsb $16,940
Total 5,479,720 100.00%  

Minnesota  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Tina Flint Smith
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
Appointed: 13 December 2017 [re: resignation of Senator Al Franken (Democratic)]; first elected in a Special Election: 2018.
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic-Farmer Labor 1,566,511 48.74% Senator  Tina Flint Smith
FEC S8MN00578; 14 Oct 20; Tot $14,865,911; Dsb $13,493,499
  Candidate Republican 1,398,130 43.50% former Member of Congress  Jason Mark Lewis
Unsuccessful candidate for election Congress: 1990; first elected 2016; unsuccessful candidate for reelection: 2018.

FEC S0MN00328; 14 Oct 20; Tot $5,384,966; Dsb $4,279,002
  Candidate Legal Marijuana Now 190,141 5.92% Kevin O'Connor
FEC S0MN00393
  Candidate Grassroots - Legalize Cannabis 57,173 1.78% Oliver Steinberg
FEC S0MN00385
  Candidate Scattering 2,259 0.07% WRITE-IN
  Candidate Write-in     George Dennis, Jr.
  Candidate Write-in     Josh Ondich
Total 3,214,214 100.00%  

Mississippi  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Cindy Hyde-Smith
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
Appointed: 1 April 2018 [re: the resignation of Senator Thad Cochran (Republican)]; first elected in a Special Election: 27 November 2018.
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 632,379 55.98% Senator  Cindy Hyde-Smith
FEC S8MS00261; 14 Oct 20; Tot $3,015,258; Dsb $2,291,969
  Candidate Democratic 476,031 42.14% former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Michael "Mike" Espy
FEC S8MS00287; 14 Oct 20; Tot $9,392,102; Dsb $5,991,284
  Candidate Libertarian 21,211 1.88% Jimmy L. Edwards
FEC S0MS00086
  
Senator Thad Cochran (Republican), who was first elected in 1978; and re-elected in 1984, 1990, 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014, announced his intention to resign from the U.S. Senate effective 1 April 2018 "... I regret my health has become an ongoing challenge ..."
On 21 March 2018, Governor Phil Bryant (Republican) announced that upon Senator Cochran's resignation, he will appoint state Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce Cindy Hyde-Smith (Republican) to the Senate Class 2 Seat.
1 April 2018: Senator Thad Cochran resigns.
3 April 2018: Governor Phil Bryant (Republican) set 6 November 2018 as the date for the Special U.S. Senate election. If no one receives a majority in the primary, the top 2 vote getters proceed to a 27 November non-partisan runoff. For special elections, all candidates run in a non-partisan primary. Party labels do not appear on the ballot.
6 November 2018: Since no candidate received a majority of the vote in the General Election, there will be a Tuesday 27 November 2018 non-partisan runoff between Senator Cindy Hyde-Smith (Republican) and former Member of Congress Alphonso Michael "Mike" Espy (Democratic).
27 November 2018: Senator Cindy Hyde-Smith (Republican) is elected.
30 May 2019: former Senator Thad Cochran (Republican), 81, passed away.
Total 1,129,621 100.00%  

Montana  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Steven "Steve" Daines
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 333,174 55.01% Senator  Steven "Steve" Daines
FEC S2MT00096; 14 Oct 20; Tot $25,700,101; Dsb $25,399,124
  Candidate Democratic 272,463 44.99% Governor  Steve Bullock
FEC S0MT00173; 14 Oct 20; Tot $43,388,861; Dsb $39,310,672
Total 605,637 100.00%  

Nebraska  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Benjamin E. "Ben" Sasse
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 583,507 67.39% Senator  Benjamin E. "Ben" Sasse
FEC S4NE00090; 14 Oct 20; Tot $4,320,393; Dsb $3,188,596
  Candidate Democratic 227,191 26.24% Chris Edward Janicek
FEC S8NE00216; 14 Oct 20; Tot $159,630; Dsb $141,424
  Candidate Libertarian 55,115 6.37% Eugene "Gene" Siadek
FEC S0NE00163
    Write-in; (Democratic)     former Congressman  John Bradley "Brad" Ashford - apparently not a candidate
First elected as a Democrat: 2014, unsuccessful candidate for reelection: 2016, unsuccessful candidate for nomination: 2018.
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Preston Love
Total 865,813 100.00%  

New Hampshire  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Jeanne Shaheen
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2008; re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic 450,771 56.67% Senator  Jeanne Shaheen
FEC S0NH00219; 14 Oct 20; Tot $17,196,852; Dsb $14,644,342
  Candidate Republican 326,229 41.01% Bryant S. "Corky" Messner
FEC S0NH00334; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,837,121; Dsb $5,225,737
  Candidate Libertarian 18,421 2.32% Justin F. O'Donnell
FEC S0NH00300; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,240; Dsb $4,853
Total 795,421 100.00%  

New Jersey  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Cory A. Booker
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 16 October 2013 in a Special Election re: passing of Senator Frank R. Lautenberg (Democratic). Re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated - 1 February 2019: "I'm Cory Booker and I'm running for president of the United States of America...." New Jersey law allows candidates to concurrently run for President and Senator simultaneously.
13 January 2020: "It's with a full heart that I share this news -- I've made the decision to suspend my campaign for president."
  Elected Democratic 2,257,667 57.34% Senator  Cory A. Booker
FEC S4NJ00185; 14 Oct 20; Tot $7,324,483; Dsb $6,030,677
  Candidate Republican 1,611,125 40.92% Rikin "Rik" Mehta
FEC S0NJ00217; 14 Oct 20; Tot $563,956; Dsb $561,049
  Candidate Green 33,222 0.84% Madelyn R. Hoffman
FEC S8NJ00558
  Candidate Of, By, For! 25,842 0.66% Veronica Fernandez
FEC S0NJ00258; 14 Oct 20; Tot $12,163; Dsb $11,505
  Candidate LaRouche was Right 9,577 0.24% Daniel C. Burke
FEC S0NJ00266; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,970; Dsb $6,155
  Candidate Write-in     Luis Ed Vergara
FEC S0NJ00183
Total 3,937,433 100.00%  

New Mexico  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Open
Democratic Senator  Tom Udall
First elected: 2008; re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Open Seat - 25 March 2019: "... I'm announcing today that I won’t be seeking re-election next year."
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Elected Democratic 474,483 51.73% Member of Congress  Ben Ray Luján
Member of Congress CD 3

FEC S0NM00058; 14 Oct 20; Tot $8,429,400; Dsb $7,803,400
  Candidate Republican 418,483 45.62% Mark V. Ronchetti
FEC S0NM00124; 14 Oct 20; Tot $3,468,689; Dsb $2,782,457
  Candidate Libertarian 24,271 2.65% Bob Walsh
FEC S0NM00132; 14 Oct 20; Tot $7,948; Dsb $5,391
Total 917,237 100.00%  

North Carolina  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Thomas Roland "Thom" Tillis
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 2,665,598 48.69% Senator  Thomas Roland "Thom" Tillis
FEC S4NC00162; 14 Oct 20; Tot $18,998,498; Dsb $17,524,213
  Candidate Democratic 2,569,965 46.94% former state Senator James Calvin "Cal" Cunningham, III
FEC S0NC00202; 14 Oct 20; Tot $47,553,797; Dsb $46,667,352
  Candidate Libertarian 171,571 3.13% Shannon Wilson Bray
FEC S0NC00335
  Candidate Constitution 67,818 1.24% Kevin Eugene Hayes
FEC S0NC00400
Total 5,474,952 100.00%  

Oklahoma  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  James M. "Jim" Inhofe
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected to fill out the term in a Special Election: 1994 [held to fill the impending vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator David L. Boren (Democrat): effective, 15 November 1994 but announced before the 1994 Oklahoma state/local Primary in August 1994, allowing for this Special Election to take place; elected to a full term: 1996; re-elected 2002, 2008, 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 979,140 62.91% Senator  James M. "Jim" Inhofe
FEC S4OK00083; 14 Oct 20; Tot $4,313,802; Dsb $3,763,345
  Candidate Democratic 509,763 32.75% Abby Broyles
FEC S0OK00370; 14 Oct 20; Tot $1,808,513; Dsb $1,692,667
  Candidate Libertarian 34,435 2.21% Robert T. Murphy
FEC S6OK04098
  Candidate Independent 21,652 1.39% Joan Farr
FEC S0OK00412; 14 Oct 20; Tot $7,438; Dsb $10,732
  Candidate Independent 11,371 0.73% April D. "A. D." Nesbit
FEC S0OK00404; 14 Oct 20; Tot $3,309; Dsb $3,188
Total 1,556,361 100.00%  

Oregon  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Jeffrey Alan "Jeff" Merkley
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2008; re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Democratic; Independent Party of Oregon; Working Families 1,303,791 57.09% Senator  Jeffrey Alan "Jeff" Merkley
FEC S8OR00207; 14 Oct 20; Tot $6,085,185; Dsb $3,925,890
  Candidate Republican 894,168 39.15% Jo Rae Perkins
FEC H6OR04203; 14 Oct 20; Tot $114,168; Dsb $65,896
  Candidate Libertarian 41,871 1.83% Gary Dye
FEC S0OR00378
  Candidate Pacific Green; Progressive 41,665 1.82% Ibrahim A. Taher
FEC S0OR00329
  Candidate Scattering 2,372 0.10% Write-in
Total 2,283,867 100.00%  

Rhode Island  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  John F. "Jack" Reed
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 1996; re-elected: 2002, 2008, 2014.
Previously served in the U.S. House: First elected: 1990, re-elected: 1992, 1994.
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
  Elected Democratic 328,554 66.48% Senator  John F. "Jack" Reed
FEC S6RI00163; 14 Oct 20; Tot $2,815,453; Dsb $1,600,507
  Candidate Republican 164,852 33.35% Allen R. Waters
FEC S0RI00067; 14 Oct 20; Tot $29,181; Dsb $21,945
  Candidate Scattering 833 0.17% WRITE-IN
Total 494,239 100.00%  

South Carolina  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Lindsey Olin Graham
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2002; re-elected: 2008, 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 1,369,137 54.44% Senator  Lindsey Olin Graham
FEC S0SC00149; 14 Oct 20; Tot $69,672,869; Dsb $59,742,955
  Candidate Democratic 1,110,828 44.17% Jaime Harrison
FEC S0SC00289; 14 Oct 20; Tot $108,978,639; Dsb $105,502,730
  Candidate Constitution 32,845 1.31% William David "Bill" Bledsoe
Withdrew, remains on the ballot.

FEC S6SC04155; 30 Sep 20; Tot $0; Dsb $0
  Candidate Scattering 2,294 0.09% Write-In
Total 2,515,104 100.00%  

South Dakota  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Marion Michael "Mike" Rounds
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 276,232 65.74% Senator  Marion Michael "Mike" Rounds
FEC S4SD00049; 14 Oct 20; Tot $3,424,236; Dsb $2,023,340
  Candidate Democratic 143,987 34.26% former state Senator Dan Ahlers
FEC S0SD00070; 14 Oct 20; Tot $240,246; Dsb $184,702
Total 420,219 100.00%  

Tennessee  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Open
Republican Senator  Lamar Alexander
First elected: 2002; re-elected: 2008, 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Open Seat - 18 December 2018: "I will not be a candidate for re-election to the United States Senate in 2020."
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Elected Republican 1,837,940 62.25% former Ambassador to Japan Bill Hagerty
FEC S0TN00169; 14 Oct 20; Tot $15,221,088; Dsb $13,779,494
  Candidate Democratic 1,036,661 35.11% Marquita Bradshaw
FEC S0TN00342; 14 Oct 20; Tot $1,214,438; Dsb $421,892
  Candidate Independent 16,590 0.56% Elizabeth D. McLeod
FEC S0TN00227; 30 Sep 20; Tot $9,777; Dsb $9,777
  Candidate Independent 10,699 0.36% Yomi "Fapas" Faparusi, Sr.
FEC S0TN00318; 30 Jun 20; Tot $4,862; Dsb $4,797
  Candidate Independent 9,590 0.32% Steven J. Hooper
FEC S0TN00409
  Candidate Independent 9,567 0.32% Kacey Morgan
Dropped out endorsing Marquita Bradshaw. Remains on the ballot.

FEC S0TN00292
  Candidate Independent 8,450 0.29% Ronnie Henley
FEC S0TN00391
  Candidate Independent 7,181 0.24% Aaron James
FEC S0TN00417
  Candidate Independent 6,762 0.23% Eric William Stansberry
FEC S0TN00425
  Candidate Independent 4,862 0.16% Garland Dean "Dean" Hill, II
FEC S0TN00300; 30 Jun 20; Tot $58; Dsb $58
  Candidate Independent; (Your Voice Hard) 4,147 0.14% Jeffrey Alan Grünau
FEC S0TN00375
Total 2,952,449 100.00%  

Texas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  John Cornyn
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2002; re-elected: 2008, 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 5,962,983 53.51% Senator  John Cornyn
FEC S2TX00106; 14 Oct 20; Tot $25,196,621; Dsb $27,183,279
  Candidate Democratic 4,888,764 43.87% Mary Jennings "MJ" Hegar
proceeds to and won the 14 July 2020 Runoff

FEC S0TX00233; 14 Oct 20; Tot $24,262,715; Dsb $17,450,224
  Candidate Libertarian 209,722 1.88% Kerry Douglas McKennon
FEC S0TX00340; 14 Oct 20; Tot $11,502; Dsb $8,799
  Candidate Green 81,893 0.73% David Bruce Collins
FEC S2TX00486
  Candidate Write-in; (Independent) 678 0.01% Ricardo "Ric" Turullols-Bonilla
FEC S0TX00423
Total 11,144,040 100.00%  

Virginia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Democratic Senator  Mark Robert Warner
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2008; re-elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated -
Nominations-- Democrats unopposed. Republicans will nominate by Primary.
  Elected Democratic 2,466,500 55.99% Senator  Mark Robert Warner
FEC S6VA00093; 14 Oct 20; Tot $12,586,899; Dsb $12,709,862
  Candidate Republican 1,934,199 43.91% Daniel MacArthur Gade
FEC S0VA00146; 14 Oct 20; Tot $4,016,206; Dsb $3,678,853
  Candidate Scattering 4,388 0.10% Write In
Total 4,405,087 100.00%  

West Virginia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Republican Senator  Shelley Moore Capito
• Re-elected Tuesday 3 November 2020
First elected: 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Renominated
  Elected Republican 547,454 70.28% Senator  Shelley Moore Capito
FEC S4WV00159; 14 Oct 20; Tot $4,564,046; Dsb $2,276,068
  Candidate Democratic 210,309 27.00% Paula Jean Swearengin
FEC S0WV00215; 14 Oct 20; Tot $1,616,805; Dsb $1,159,027
  Candidate Libertarian 21,155 2.72% David Durstan Moran
FEC S0WV00264
Total 778,918 100.00%  

Wyoming  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2
Seat up for regular election
Open
Republican Senator  Michael B. "Mike" Enzi
First elected: 1996; re-elected: 2002, 2008, 2014
Seat up for regular election: Tuesday 3 November 2020
Open Seat - 4 May 2019: Announced retirement. Not running for re-election.
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Elected Republican 198,100 71.13% former Member of Congress  Cynthia Marie Lummis
First elected to the US House: 2008; re-elected 2010, 2012, 2014; did not run in 2016.

FEC S0WY00137; 21 Oct 20; Tot $2,776,829; Dsb $2,215,959
  Candidate Democratic 72,766 26.13% Merav Ben-David
FEC S0WY00152; 14 Oct 20; Tot $427,982; Dsb $279,530
  Candidate Scattering 6,401 2.30% Undervotes
  Candidate Scattering 1,071 0.38% Write-Ins
  Candidate Scattering 165 0.06% Overvotes
Total 278,503 100.00%  

Political Parties    Parties appear in parenthesis and italics when a candidate receives the endorsement of a given Party and/or official sources indicate a candidate's association with a particular Party but only where the Party in question does not appear on the actual ballot as such.

Major Parties
  Democratic
  Democratic-Farmer Labor
  Republican
Major Third Parties
  Constitution
  Green
  Green Independent
  Libertarian
  Pacific Green
Other Third Parties
  Alaskan Independence
  Alliance Party
  Approval Voting
  Grassroots - Legalize Cannabis
  Independent Party Of Delaware
  Independent Party of Oregon
  Legal Marijuana Now
  Natural Law
  Progressive
  U.S. Taxpayers
  United Party
  Unity
  Willie Wilson Party
  Working Families
  Your Voice Hard
Independents
 
  Independent
  LaRouche was Right
  No Party
  No Party Affiliation
  Non Affiliated
  None
  Nonpartisan
  Of, By, For!
  Other
  Unaffiliated
Write-in/Scattered/otherwise not readily classifiable
  Scattering
  Write-in
 

Notes

Candidates for office appear on this page in italics where 'The Green Papers' does not yet have independent confirmation from a legal election authority that the person has been officially certified to appear on the ballot.


"FEC" indicates the Federal Election Commission (FEC) Campaign Finance Summary.

When available, we post each candidate's FEC identification number, the date of their most recently filed Report of Receipts and Disbursements, their "Tot" [Total Receipts (contributions received or what came in: FEC Form 3, Line 16, Column B)] and their "Dsb" [Total Disbursements (expenditures or what was spent: FEC Form 3, Line 23, Column B)]. A link is provided to the Federal Election Commission's Summary Report for those who might wish to explore the details.

If a candidate raises or spends $5,000 or less, he or she is not subject to FEC reporting requirements.


Senate Class

Class 1 seats begin their terms at noon on 3 January 2019 and end their terms on 3 January 2025. The next regular election for these seats is in 5 November 2024.
Class 2 seats began their terms at noon on 3 January 2015 and end their terms on 3 January 2021. The next regular election for these seats is 3 November 2020.
Class 3 seats began their terms at noon on 3 January 2017 and end their terms on 3 January 2023. The next regular election for these seats is 8 November 2022.

For more information on Senate Classes refer to UNITED STATES SENATE: Electoral "Classes".


Article I, Section 3, clause 2 of the Constitution of the United States reads as follows:

"Immediately after [the Senate of the United States] shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year..."

Pursuant to this Constitutional provision, a three-Senator Committee was appointed by the Senate on 11 May 1789 to come up with a plan to carry out the requirements of that provision; this Committee reported to the Senate on 14 May 1789 a plan to divide the then 20 Senators (there were 10 of the 13 original States represented in the Senate at the time- each having 2 Senators: North Carolina and Rhode Island had yet to ratify the U.S. Constitution, while New York had so ratified but had failed to elect Senators as of that date) into the requisite three electoral Classes: under this plan, three groups of Senators (set up in such a way so as no State had its two Senators in the same group) were to be listed and the first Senator on each list (a list which was set up geographically north-to-south in the manner in which the Electoral Vote for President was counted before Congress at that time, so that two of the first Senators on these lists were from New Hampshire and the third was the first Senator in alphabetical order from Massachusetts) was to each blindly draw a piece of paper numbered either "1", "2" or "3" out of a box in the possession of the Secretary of the Senate. This plan being agreeable to the Senate and so approved, the drawing of lots in this manner was carried out the following day (15 May 1789)- such lot drawing ultimately determining that, to start with, Classes 1 and 2 were to have 7 Senators each and Class 3 was to have only 6 Senators.

When New York finally seated its two Senators during the ensuing Summer, there was another lot drawing (actually a double-lot drawing) on 28 July 1789 to determine the Classes for these seats: since one of the seats had to be Class 3 to make it equal in number to that of the other two Classes so far, the two New York Senators each blindly drew between two pieces of paper, one marked "3", the other which was blank- after this, there was a second lot drawing in which the New York Senator who had drawn the blank paper blindly drew again between two pieces of paper marked "1" and "2": he drew "1" so that New York would henceforth have Senators of electoral Classes 1 and 3.

When North Carolina seated its two Senators after ratifying the Constitution on 21 November 1789, there was yet another lot drawing (on 29 January 1790) in which North Carolina's two Senators each blindly drew between pieces of paper marked "2" and "3" (since there were now 12 States and, thus, 24 Senators: 24 being equally divisible by 3, there would now have to be 8 Senators in each of the three Classes to fulfill the Constitutional provision that, as nearly as was practicable, one third of the Senate be elected every second year).

After Rhode Island- the last of the 13 original States- finally ratified the Constitution on 29 May 1790 and subsequently seated its two Senators that Summer, there was yet one more lot drawing in the First Congress (on 25 June 1790) in which Rhode Island's two Senators blindly drew between pieces of paper marked "1", "2" and "3": one Senator drew "2", the other drew "1"- thereby determining electoral Classes 1 and 2 as those for the Senators from this State. When Vermont was admitted to the Union as the 14th state on 4 March 1791, there was again a double lot drawing as there had been for New York. From that day until this, whenever a new State has been admitted to the Union, these types of lot drawings (the type determined by the necessity of keeping the number of Senators in each electoral Class as close to one third as possible at the time of said lot drawing) between the new State's first Senators is held before the Senate to determine in just which of the three electoral Classes that State's Senate seats will be placed from then on.


 


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