Local Government
Civil Divisions and Incorporated Municipalities
in the United States of America


 
State Local Government
Alabama
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: COMMISSION]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure. Functioned historically as the jurisdiction of Alabama's justices of the peace (until that office was abolished in 1977); some precincts still elect a constable but this office may be abolished by local option. Where a constable is no longer elected, the precinct is largely dormant]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  Town [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 300-1,999, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Aldermen; Commission]
City [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 2,000 +, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Aldermen; Commission]
Alaska
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  Borough [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: ASSEMBLY]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  City [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Council]
Arizona
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF SUPERVISORS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure. Functions primarily as the jurisdiction of Arizona's justices of the peace]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  City [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 1,500 +, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Council; Board of Trustees [special cases only]
Town [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 1,500 +, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Council; Board of Trustees [special cases only]
Arkansas
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive: Judge (of County Court), Legislative: QUORUM COURT (= justices of the peace meeting with the county Judge)]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Vestigial, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure. The Arkansas township has traditionally been the electoral unit for, as well as the jurisdiction of, the Justice of the Peace (although, in practice, the jurisdiction of a given J.P. tends to extend throughout the county)]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  City [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 500 +, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Aldermen; Commission; Board of Directors- Administrator OR Manager]
Town [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 499 -, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Aldermen]
California
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF SUPERVISORS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure. Functioned historically as the jurisdiction of California's justices of the peace until the development of the Municipal Court system throughout the mid-20th Century eventually replaced these township Justice Courts with a districted system of Justice Courts which ultimately was to be subsumed into the Municipal Court system as the primary court of limited jurisdiction in California. The original text of the [2nd] California Constitution of 1879- in Article XI, section 4- contained a clause which stated that the Legislature by general laws shall provide for township organization, under which any county may organize whenever a majority of the qualified electors of such county, voting at a general election, shall so determine: however, this provision was repealed by an Amendment to the Constitution of California adopted by majority vote of the State's electors on Tuesday 27 June 1933; thus, for a little over half a century, the State of California allowed a given county to turn its non-governmental (principally judicial) townships into active governmental subdivisions of the county by local option but, since 1933, this option has no longer been available. Nevertheless, many of the more recent subdivisions of the county in California for purposes of both county and State government were often originally delimited with at least some reference to the township boundaries in that county; therefore, the township- though having become dormant- remains the traditional Minor Civil Division in the State of California]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  City [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Council]
Town [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Council]
Town [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 1,999 -, Form(s) of government: Board of Trustees]
Colorado
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: Vestigial, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure. Precincts were, at one time, the unit associated with Justices of the Peace]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  City [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): 2,000 +, Form(s) of government: Mayor/Council; Council-Manager]
Connecticut
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Vestigial, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure. CONNECTICUT abolished County government as of 1 October 1960: until that time, each County was administered by a Board of Commissioners]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   TOWN [Type: Very Strong, Executive: First Selectman & Board of Selectmen, Legislative: TOWN MEETING]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  City [Separated from MCD: = MCD, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: chartered by special act of General Assembly]
Borough [Separated from MCD: No, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: chartered by special act of General Assembly]
Delaware
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: LEVY COURT]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   hundred [Type: Vestigial, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure. The hundred was once the unit re: Delaware's Justices of the Peace (it was also used for a time as the basis of representation in the General Assembly); although, for the most part, defunct (it still functions relative to locating property re: legal title to land), the hundred remains Delaware's traditional subdivision of the county.]
 
Incorporated Municipality
  City [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: chartered by special act of General Assembly]
Town [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: chartered by special act of General Assembly]
Village [Separated from MCD: ---, Population requirement(s): none, Form(s) of government: chartered by special act of General Assembly]
Borough (1999-2001) [Separated from MCD: Yes, Population requirement(s): population, Form(s) of government: forms]
Florida
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Georgia
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Hawaii
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive: Mayor, Legislative: COUNCIL]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Idaho
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Illinois
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Limited, Executive and Legislative: Board of Supervisors]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Broad, Executive: Supervisor, Legislative: TOWN[SHIP] MEETING]
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Indiana
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive: Board of Commissioners, Legislative: COUNCIL]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive: Trustee, Legislative: Board]
Iowa
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF SUPERVISORS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Vestigial, Executive and Legislative: Board of Trustees]
Kansas
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive: Trustee, Legislative: Board]
Kentucky
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive: Judge(=Executive), Legislative: FISCAL COURT]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Louisiana
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  Parish [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: POLICE JURY]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   ward [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Maine
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Weak, Executive and Legislative: Court of Commissioners]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   TOWN [Type: Very Strong, Executive: Board of Selectmen, Legislative: TOWN MEETING]
Maryland
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Massachusetts
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Weak, Executive and Legislative: Board of Commissioners. Chapter 34B of the General Laws of Massachusetts- enacted in 1996- provides for the optional abolition of County Government, with the further option of replacing most of the former functions of such abolished government with a Regional Council of Governments made up of representatives of the Minor Civil Divisions (Cities and Towns) within or contiguous to a given abolished County. As in CONNECTICUT and RHODE ISLAND, abolished Counties continue to function as the basis of subdivisions of the Commonwealth for judicial purposes.]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   TOWN [Type: Very Strong, Executive: Board of Selectmen, Legislative: TOWN MEETING]
Michigan
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive: Supervisor, Legislative: Board of Trustees]
Minnesota
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive: Board of Supervisors, Legislative: Town(ship) Meeting]
Mississippi
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF SUPERVISORS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   beat [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Missouri
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: COMMISSION]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive: Trustee, Legislative: Board of Directors]
Montana
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Nebraska
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF SUPERVISORS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive: Chairman, Legislative: Board]
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Nevada
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
New Hampshire
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Weak, Executive and Legislative: Board of Commissioners]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   TOWN [Type: Very Strong, Executive: Board of Selectmen, Legislative: TOWN MEETING]
New Jersey
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Shared, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF CHOSEN FREEHOLDERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   TOWNSHIP [Type: Shared, Executive: Mayor, Legislative: COMMITTEE]
New Mexico
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
New York
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Limited, Executive and Legislative: Board of Supervisors]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   Town[ship] [Type: Broad, Executive: SUPERVISOR, Legislative: Board]
North Carolina
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
North Dakota
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive and Legislative: Board of Supervisors]
Ohio
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive and Legislative: Board of Trustees]
Oklahoma
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Vestigial, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Oregon
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive: Judge, Legislative: COUNTY COURT]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Pennsylvania
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive and Legislative: Board of Supervisors]
Rhode Island
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Vestigial, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   TOWN [Type: Very Strong, Executive: Council, Legislative: TOWN MEETING]
South Carolina
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: COUNCIL]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
South Dakota
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Broad, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   township [Type: Limited, Executive and Legislative: Board of Supervisors]
Tennessee
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive: Executive, Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Texas
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive: Judge, Legislative: COMMISSIONERS' COURT]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Utah
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Vermont
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Weak, Executive and Legislative: Assistant ["Side"] Judges [of Superior Court]]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   TOWN [Type: Very Strong, Executive: Board of Selectmen (more generally known as a 'Selectboard'), Legislative: TOWN MEETING]
Virginia
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF SUPERVISORS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Washington
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   precinct [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
West Virginia
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
Wisconsin
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  county [Type: Limited, Executive and Legislative: Board of Supervisors]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   Town[ship] [Type: Broad, Executive: Board of Supervisors, Legislative: TOWN MEETING]
Wyoming
PRIMARY CIVIL DIVISION  
  County [Type: Strong, Executive and Legislative: BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS]
 MINOR CIVIL DIVISION  
   district [Type: None, Executive and Legislative: no associated governmental structure]
 


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