This information was compiled for the 2008 Presidential Election
and is subject to updating and/or changes for 2016.
"Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors..."
(U.S. Constitution: Article II, Section 1, clause 2)
|STATE||chosen by||citation||on General Election|
|Pledged by statute to support winning ticket?|
|ALABAMA||Political Party organization||Ala. Code 17-19-2(c)||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|ALASKA||Political Party organization||Ak. Statutes 15.30.020||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|ARIZONA||Political Party primary election||Ariz. Rev. Statutes 16-344||named slate (at-large)||No|
|ARKANSAS||Political Party state convention||Ark. Code 7-8-302(1)||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|CALIFORNIA||Political Party per statute||Calif. Elections Code 7100, 7300||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|COLORADO||Political Party state convention||Colo. Rev. Statutes 1-4-302||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|CONNECTICUT||Political Party state convention||Conn. Gen. Statutes 9-175||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA||Political Party central committee||D.C. Code 1-1312(d)||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (oath or affirmation required when chosen)|
|DELAWARE||Political Party state convention||Del. Code 15:3301||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|FLORIDA||Political Party central committee||Fla. Statutes 103.021||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|GEORGIA||Political Party organization||Ga. Official Code 21-2-130||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|HAWAII||Political Party state convention||Hi. Rev. Statutes 14-21||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|IDAHO||Political Party state convention||Ida. Code 34-707||named slate (at-large)||No|
|ILLINOIS||Political Party state convention||Ill. Compiled Statutes 10-5/21-1(a)||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|INDIANA||Political Party state convention||Ind. Code 3-8-4-2||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|IOWA||Political Party central committee||Code of Ia. 54.5|
unnamed slate (at-large)
|KANSAS||Political Party central committee||Kan. Statutes 25-804||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|KENTUCKY||Political Party state convention||Ky. Rev. Statutes 118.325||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|LOUISIANA||Political Party organization||La. Rev. Statutes 18:1253[A]||named slate (at-large)||No|
|MAINE||Political Party state convention||Me. Rev. Statutes T.21-A; 321.2[C]||unnamed (1 per congressional district/ 2 at-large)||Yes|
|MARYLAND||Political Party organization||Code of Md.: Art.33(Elec.Code), 8-503||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|MASSACHUSETTS||Political Party central committee||Mass. Gen. Laws c. 53, 8||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|MICHIGAN||Political Party state convention||Mich. Compiled Laws 168.42||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|MINNESOTA||Political Party state convention||Minn. Statutes 208.03||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|MISSISSIPPI||Political Party state convention (nomination) / primary election (choice)||Miss. Code 23-15-771||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|MISSOURI||Political Party central committee||Mo. Rev. Statutes 115.399||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|MONTANA||Political Party organization||Mont. Code 13-25-101||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|NEBRASKA||Political Party state convention||Neb. Rev. Statutes 32-710||unnamed (1 per congressional district/ 2 at-large slate)||No|
|NEVADA||Political Party state convention||Nev. Rev. Statutes 298.020||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|NEW HAMPSHIRE||Political Party state convention||N.H. Rev. Statutes c. 655, 54||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|NEW JERSEY||Political Party state convention or central committee (conflicting statutes)||N.J. Rev. Statutes 19:13-2 conflicts with 19:13-15||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|NEW MEXICO||Political Party state convention||N.M. Statutes 1-15-3||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (failure to do so: subject to criminal prosecution)|
|NEW YORK||Political Party central committee||N.Y. Election Law 6-102||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|NORTH CAROLINA||Political Party state convention||Gen. Statutes of N.C. 163-1||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (failure to do so: subject to fine)|
|NORTH DAKOTA||Political Party state convention||N.D. Century Code 16.1-03-14||named slate (at-large)||No|
|OHIO||Political Party state convention||Ohio Rev. Code 3513.11||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|OKLAHOMA||Political Party state convention||Okla. Statutes 26-10-101||named slate (at-large)||Yes (oath required: violation subject to fine)|
|OREGON||Political Party organization||Ore. Rev. Statutes 248.355||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (must sign pledge upon being chosen)|
|PENNSYLVANIA||Political Party presidential nominee||Pa. Consolidated Statutes 25*2878||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|RHODE ISLAND||Political Party state convention||Gen. Laws of R.I. 17-12-13||named slate (at-large)||No|
|SOUTH CAROLINA||Political Party central committee||Code of Laws of S.C. 7-9-90||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (declaration of intent required: violators subject to criminal prosecution)|
|SOUTH DAKOTA||Political Party state convention||S.D. Codified Laws 12-5-21||named slate (at-large)||No|
|TENNESSEE||Political Party organization||Tenn. Code 2-13-203||named individually||Yes (but 'free agent' if either- or both- candidates on winning ticket are deceased at the time Electors meet)|
|TEXAS||Political Party organization||Tex. Election Code 192.003||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|UTAH||Political Party organization||Utah Code 20A-13-301||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (failure to do so: automatic resignation of Elector and replacement by vote of remaining Electors)|
|VERMONT||Political Party state convention||Vt. Statutes 17-2319, 17-2721||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|VIRGINIA||Political Party state convention||Code of Va. 24.2-508||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
|WASHINGTON||Political Party organization||Rev. Code of Wash. 29.71.020||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (failure to do so: subject to fine)|
|WEST VIRGINIA||Political Party state convention||W.Va. Code 3-5-21||unnamed slate (at-large)||No|
|WISCONSIN||Political Party state legislative candidates and state officers||Wis. Statutes 8.18||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes (unless candidate is deceased)|
|WYOMING||Political Party state convention||Wyo. Statutes 22-19-102||unnamed slate (at-large)||Yes|
- Political Party
- "Political Party", of course, refers to a political party which has either nominated candidates for President or Vice-President who have been automatically accepted- under State Election Law regarding automatic ballot access- on the General Election ballot or has successfully achieved ballot access for its candidates for President and Vice-President in the General Election through the procedures of nomination by petition supplied by State Election law. The element of the political party making the actual choice- as listed herein- usually applies only to Major Parties; state law generally allows minor parties and independent candidates for President to file their electors as part of the petitioning process.
- central committee
- "central committee" usually means the state committee of the political party actually chooses the party's Presidential Electors for the upcoming presidential election; however, in some states, it may mean the state central committee of the political party is free to designate another method (state convention, primary election, etc.) of choice without state oversight.
- "organization" means the political party is pretty much free to choose its method of nominating Presidential Electors (that is, it may use a state convention, a state primary election or have the state party central committee or even its chairperson[s] choose the Electors without any state input re: how the Party goes about this).
- per statute
- "per statute" means that the Political Parties- their organization, committee makeups, etc.- are regulated by state statute, including how each Party chooses its Presidential Electors. In CALIFORNIA, of the Major Parties, the Democrats allow the party's most recent nominees for U.S. House and Senate choose the Electors (each candidate choosing one Elector) while the Republicans leave the choice of Electors to a committee made up of recent nominees for statewide office, state legislative leaders and other important party officials.
- primary election
- "primary election" means the political party MUST use the regularly scheduled state/local primary election to choose its Presidential Electors for the upcoming presidential election.
- state convention
- "state convention" means the Party MUST use its state convention to choose its Presidential Electors for the upcoming presidential election.
- the statutory citation refers to the specific code section in state law which determines the methods by which those who will, if elected via the General Election for president, be "appointed" Presidential Electors from a given state. The method of citation is, as close as is possible, that used in the Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest.
on General Election ballot as
- "unnamed" means the names of the Electors do NOT appear on the ballot: only the names of the candidates for President and Vice-President appear.
- "named" means the names of the Electors DO appear on the ballot: usually next to either the surnames or full names of the candidates for President and Vice-President.
- "slate" means that the Electors (whether named or unnamed) are chosen as a slate: that is, the voter cannot pick and choose between Electors from different Parties (and, by definition, pledged to different Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates)... this is probably a given for "unnamed" Electors, but not necessarily so with "named" Electors!
- "at-large", of course, means that the votes for Electors are counted
statewide and all Presidential Electors are "appointed"- however
indirectly- by the results of the popular vote for President statewide.
(Where some Electors are "appointed" by the results of the popular
vote for President by district- as is the case in MAINE and
NEBRASKA- the type of district is so indicated).
- "at-large", of course, means that the votes for Electors are counted statewide and all Presidential Electors are "appointed"- however indirectly- by the results of the popular vote for President statewide. (Where some Electors are "appointed" by the results of the popular vote for President by district- as is the case in MAINE and NEBRASKA- the type of district is so indicated).
Pledged by statute to support winning ticket?
- Pledged by statute to support winning ticket?
- This is a tricky area: in many states which so require by law [marked "Yes" in the table], the statute specifically states that the Electors shall [or must] cast their ballots to the national ticket which received the most popular votes; in other states, the statute is not so specific- however, the language regarding how the vote of the voter is to be applied to the allocation of Electors implies just such a pledge. When in doubt, this column has been marked "No"- the reason being that these state laws pledging (or implying a pledge of) the Electors to vote for the winning national ticket are of dubious constitutionality (theoretically, the Electors- like U.S. Senators- though representing the State, are Federal officers: the State cannot legally "instruct" Federal officers which, nonetheless, represent it; thus, at least in theory, the Electors are 'free agents' who can cast their ballots for President and Vice President as they see fit- the only check on this being whether or not the Joint Session of Congress which counts and tabulates the Electoral Vote accepts the Elector's votes as valid. Keep in mind, however, that- even re: States where this column reads "No"- there may be political party intradiscipline that might well be resorted to in order to prevent an 'appointed' Presidential Elector from failing to vote for the winning ticket!)
2016 General Election Outline
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