The Green Papers
2004 Presidential Primaries, Caucuses, and Conventions
Copyright Iowa Democrat
Presidential Nominating Process
Caucus: Monday 19 January 20041
County Conventions: Saturday 13 March 2004
District Conventions: Saturday 24 April 2004
State Convention: Saturday 26 June 2004
Delegate Votes
Hard TotalFloor Vote
Kerry, John F.5,002   37.1%39.   68.4%57.  100.0%
Edwards, John4,393   32.6%4.    7.0% 
Dean, Howard2,342   17.4%2.    3.5% 
Gephardt, Richard "Dick"1,507   11.2%  
Kucinich, Dennis J.139    1.0%  
(write-in/others)65    0.5%  
Uncommitted24    0.2%12.   21.1% 
Clark, Wesley K.15    0.1%  
Lieberman, Joe0    0.0%  
Sharpton, Alfred C. "Al"0    0.0%  
Total13,487  100.0%57.  100.0%57.  100.0%

States Chronologically   States Alphabetically     Democratic Convention     Iowa Republican    
Iowa Primaries for Statewide offices and Congress


26 May 2004 Unpledged delegate preference update: Kerry: 2. Unpledged delegates appear in the "Soft Unpledged" column.

Senator Joe Lieberman and Retired General Wesley Clark did not campaign in Iowa.

24 April 2004 District Convention delegate results: CD 1: Kerry-4, Edwards- 1, Dean- 1; CD 2: Kerry- 3, Edwards- 2, Dean- 1; CD 3: Kerry- 6; CD 4: Kerry- 5, Edwards- 1; CD 5: Kerry- 5. Summary district delegate results: Kerry- 23, Edwards- 4, Dean- 2.

26 June 2004 State Convention delegate results: Pledged PLEO: Kerry- 10; At-Large: Kerry- 8. Summary statewide delegate results: Kerry- 18.

The Precinct results were obtained from the Iowa Democratic Party. The counts represent the 13,487 County Convention delegates elected by the 124,331 Democrats who attended the Precinct Caucuses. Last update: 26 April 2004.

Here's how we estimate the delegate count on 19 January 2004: (Based on the January 2004 Iowa Caucus results from the Iowa Democratic Party. Note that zero national convention delegates are allocated during the Precinct Caucuses - national convention delegates are first elected in June. Senator Joe Lieberman and Retired General Wesley Clark did not campaign in Iowa.)

  1. A candidate must receive 15% or more of the total popular vote to qualify for delegates. Discard votes cast for those candidates who do not qualify. Kerry, Edwards, and Dean have qualified for delegates.
  2. Allocate Congressional District delegates from the qualified vote in each district. Allocate Pledged PLEO and At-Large delegates using the state-wide qualified vote.
  3. In each jurisdiction (CD and statewide):
    1. Total qualified vote = total votes cast for the qualifying candidates in the jurisdiction.
    2. Allocation = (delegates for the jurisdiction) (candidate's popular vote) (total qualified vote).
    3. Assign each candidate the WHOLE NUMBER of delegates.
    4. If delegates remain, allocate each of the remaining delegates to those candidates with the LARGEST REMAINDERS.

Delegates 45 21 17 7

Monday 19 January 2004: Democratic Party Caucuses meet in each precinct. Each Precinct Caucus chooses the precinct's delegates to County Conventions based on presidential preference (which, despite the media circus that quadrennially surrounds this event, is all that will be actually decided at these Iowa caucuses!).

NOTE: Estimates will, of course, be made by media outlets as well as by the campaigns of the presidential contenders themselves as to how many of Iowa's 57 National Convention delegates each presidential contender is likely to be ultimately be receiving as a result of the Iowa caucuses but, of course, since no National Convention delegates are actually being chosen by these caucuses, all such estimates will almost certainly, come the State Convention in June, be wrong!!

  • At each caucus, each presidential contender who fails to get at least 15 percent support among the participants in the initial balloting after a period of discussion will be considered "non-viable" and all supporters of such "non-viable" presidential contenders will then be required to join in the support of presidential contenders who have remained "viable". To determine the viability of a presidential contender, multiply the number of eligible caucus attendees by the percentages below and round to the nearest whole number. This is the minimum number of delegates needed for the contender to remain viable.
    • 50% (majority vote) for caucuses electing 1 delegate.
    • 25% (one quarter) for caucuses electing 2 delegates.
    • 16.66...% (one sixth) for caucuses electing 3 delegates.
    • 15% for caucuses electing 4 or more delegates.

Example. 57 people attend a caucus electing 3 delegates. The viability is 1/6th of 57 = 9.5 rounded which is 10. Say 29 people support candidate A, 19 support candidate B, and 9 support candidate C. Candidates A and B are viable since they have support of 10 or more of the attendees. Because candidate C did not receive the support of 10 attendees, those supporting candidate C must realign to another candidate. At this point, the attendees realign themselves so 34 support candidate A and 23 support candidate B.

The caucus will next choose the precinct's delegates to the Democratic Convention of the County in which the precinct is located (which is all, despite all the media hoopla, that will be actually decided at the Iowa caucuses!) who will be allocated in proportion to the percentage of the support each "viable" presidential contender received in the second round of balloting at the precinct caucus as of the time of its adjournment. (Estimates will, of course, be made by media outlets as well as the contenders themselves as to how many of Iowa's 57 National Convention delegates each contender will ultimately be receiving but, of course, since NO National Convention delegates are actually being chosen by these caucuses, all such estimates will almost certainly, in the end, be WRONG!!!)."

Continuing the example from above: For Candidate A: 3 (total precinct delegates) × 34 (supporters) ÷ 57 (total attendees) = 1.789 which rounds to 2 precinct delegates. Candidate B receives 3 × 23 ÷ 57 = 1.211 which rounds to 1 precinct delegate. Note: Due to rounding, the sum of precinct delegates may exceed the total number of precinct delegates allocated to the caucus. If this happens, round down the candidate with the smallest fraction. Candidates receiving 1 precinct delegate are not subject to this rule, that is, candidates cannot loose their only precinct delegate during this adjustment.


Saturday 13 March 2004: Democratic Party County Conventions convene in each county. Each County Convention chooses the county's delegates to both Congressional District Conventions and the Iowa State Convention based on presidential preference. A mandatory 15 percent threshold is required in order for a presidential contender to be viable. Delegates assigned to a non-viable candidate will realign themselves to another candidate.

  • County Conventions choose both the county's delegates to the Democratic Party Convention of the Congressional District of which the county is a part as well as the county's delegates the Iowa State Democratic Convention; each presidential contender receives a number of the county's delegates to each respective Convention (District or State) in proportion to the number of county convention delegates supporting said candidate.

Saturday 24 April 2004: Democratic Party District Conventions convene in each congressional district to choose the district's delegates to the Democratic National Convention. A mandatory 15 percent threshold is required in order for a presidential contender to be allocated National Convention delegates at the district level.

  • 29 district delegates are to be allocated proportionally to the number of district convention delegates supporting said candidate in each Congressional District:
    • CD 1: 6
    • CD 2: 6
    • CD 3: 6
    • CD 4: 6
    • CD 5: 5

Therefore, the very first time Democratic National Convention delegates from Iowa will be allocated to presidential contenders officially will be at these Saturday 24 April 2004 District Conventions!!


Posted 10 February 2004: The convention date is changed from from 12 June to 26 June 2004.

Saturday 26 June 2004: The Iowa State Democratic Convention convenes. The State Convention chooses 16 of the Iowa's Pledged delegates to the Democratic National Convention. A mandatory 15 percent threshold is required in order for a presidential contender to be allocated National Convention delegates at the statewide level.

16 delegates are to be allocated to presidential contenders based the support for the presidential contenders in the State Convention as a whole.

  • 10 at-large National Convention delegates
  • 6 Pledged PLEOs

The remaining 12 National Convention delegates consist of

  • 11 Unpledged PLEO delegates:
    • 8 Democratic National Committee members
    • 2 Members of Congress (1 Senator and 1 Representative)
    • 1 Governor
    • 0 Distinguished Party Leaders
  • 1 Unpledged "add-on" (selected at the state convention).

These 12 delegates and will go to the Democratic National Convention officially "Unpledged".

Only as of Saturday 26 June 2004 will ALL of Iowa's 57 Democratic National Convention delegates have been allocated: the estimates made re: delegate allocation as a result of the Iowa caucuses will likely not match the presidential preferences and pledges of the National Convention delegates as actually chosen because it is rather probable that the field of Democratic presidential contenders on Saturday 26 June 2004 will very well be quite different from the way that same field looked at the time the Iowa Precinct Caucuses had taken place way back in January!

Delegation to the National Convention

Iowa Delegation (as posted by, 4 July 2004)

Pledged District242329
Pledged PLEO0066
Pledged At-Large001010
Total Pledged243945
Alternate Pledged District0055
Alternate Pledged PLEO0000
Alternate Pledged At-Large0033
Total Alternates0088
Unpledged   12
Pages   2
Pledged District 1DeanElesha GaymanDavenport, IA
Pledged District 1EdwardsPatrick JohnsonClinton, IA
Pledged District 1KerryTeri MurphyDubuque, IA
Pledged District 1KerryHon. Bob OsterhausMaquoketa, IA
Pledged District 1KerryMatthew SchmidtPreston, IA
Pledged District 1KerryMegan SimpsonDubuque, IA
Pledged District 2EdwardsGary FickenCedar Rapids, IA
Pledged District 2EdwardsLauren HaldemanNorth Liberty, IA
Pledged District 2KerryFloyd HendredOttumwa, IA
Pledged District 2KerryMegan HenekeIowa City, IA
Pledged District 2DeanDavid LeshtzIowa City, IA
Pledged District 2KerryHon. Mary MascherIowa City, IA
Pledged District 3KerryNancy BoboDes Moines, IA
Pledged District 3KerryRay BrownDes Moines, IA
Pledged District 3KerryDaniel GrossbergLouisville, KY
Pledged District 3KerryAlan KoslowWest Des Moines, IA
Pledged District 3KerryHon. Mary MaloneyDes Moines, IA
Pledged District 3KerryDori Rummelsburg-DvorakClutier, IA
Pledged District 4KerryBetty HavilandAmes, IA
Pledged District 4EdwardsKumari HenryMadrid, IA
Pledged District 4KerryDaryl LewisLake, IA
Pledged District 4KerryJackie NorrisAmes, IA
Pledged District 4KerryTom SalvatoreFort Dodge, IA
Pledged District 4KerryJohn TekippeWaukee Ave., IA
Pledged District 5KerryAnne CowleySioux City, IA
Pledged District 5KerryConnie Bear KingSioux City, IA
Pledged District 5KerryHon. Paul ShomshorCouncil Bluffs, IA
Pledged District 5KerryHon. Roger WendtSioux City, IA
Pledged District 5KerryTeresa WolffSioux City, IA
Pledged PLEOKerryFrancis BoggusCouncil Bluffs, IA
Pledged PLEOKerryHon. Swati DandekarMarion, IA
Pledged PLEOKerryHon. Mike GronstalCouncil Bluffs, IA
Pledged PLEOKerryHon. Helen MillerFt. Dodge, IA
Pledged PLEOKerryHon. Linda NelsonNorwalk, IA
Pledged PLEOKerryJustin ShieldsCedar Rapids, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryHon. Som BaccamDes Moines, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryChristina ButtsDes Moines, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryMary CamposDes Moines, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryAraceli GoodeDes Moines, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryBeth JunkAmes, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryHon. Linda LangstonCedar Rapids, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryAugustus LartiusBoone, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryMiguel MorenoGlenwood, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryJohn Thomas PowersWaterloo, IA
Pledged At-LargeKerryMonica SeversonCedar Rapids, IA
Alternate Pledged DistrictKerryKatherine AllikianCarlisle, IA
Alternate Pledged DistrictKerryHon. Deborah BerryWaterloo, IA
Alternate Pledged DistrictKerryThomas FurlongLetts, IA
Alternate Pledged DistrictKerryKate GronstalCouncil Bluffs, IA
Alternate Pledged DistrictKerryFrank SampleDes Moines, IA
Alternate Pledged At-LargeKerryNewman AbuissaIowa City, IA
Alternate Pledged At-LargeKerryHon. Ro FoegeMount Vernon, IA
Alternate Pledged At-LargeKerryHon. Amanda RaganMason City, IA
Unpledged Add-on
Delegation Chair
 Christie VilsackDes Moines, IA
Unpledged Congressman Hon. Leonard BoswellFalls Church, VA
Unpledged DNC Member Hon. Chet CulverDes Moines, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Gordon FischerDes Moines, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Hon. Michael FitzgeraldDes Moines, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Pat MarshallCedar Rapids, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Hon. Tom MillerDes Moines, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Hon. Sally PedersonDes Moines, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Ken RainsDes Moines, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Julianne ThomasCedar Rapids, IA
Unpledged DNC Member Hon. Tom VilsackDes Moines, IA
Unpledged Senator Hon. Tom HarkinWashington, DC
Page Alex InghamClinton, IA
Page Candace OpstvedtStory City, IA

Congressional District  

CD per County
Adair: CD 5
Adams: CD 5
Allamakee: CD 4
Appanoose: CD 2
Audubon: CD 5
Benton: CD 3
Black Hawk: CD 1
Boone: CD 4
Bremer: CD 1
Buchanan: CD 1
Buena Vista: CD 5
Butler: CD 1
Calhoun: CD 4
Carroll: CD 5
Cass: CD 5
Cedar: CD 2
Cerro Gordo: CD 4
Cherokee: CD 5
Chickasaw: CD 4
Clarke: CD 5
Clay: CD 5
Clayton: CD 1
Clinton: CD 1
Crawford: CD 5
Dallas: CD 4
Davis: CD 2
Decatur: CD 5
Delaware: CD 1
Des Moines: CD 2
Dickinson: CD 5
Dubuque: CD 1
Emmet: CD 4
Fayette: CD 1
Floyd: CD 4
Franklin: CD 4
Fremont: CD 5
Greene: CD 4
Grundy: CD 3
Guthrie: CD 5
Hamilton: CD 4
Hancock: CD 4
Hardin: CD 4
Harrison: CD 5
Henry: CD 2
Howard: CD 4
Humboldt: CD 4
Ida: CD 5
Iowa: CD 3
Jackson: CD 1
Jasper: CD 3
Jefferson: CD 2
Johnson: CD 2
Jones: CD 1
Keokuk: CD 3
Kossuth: CD 4
Lee: CD 2
Linn: CD 2
Louisa: CD 2
Lucas: CD 3
Lyon: CD 5
Madison: CD 4
Mahaska: CD 3
Marion: CD 3
Marshall: CD 4
Mills: CD 5
Mitchell: CD 4
Monona: CD 5
Monroe: CD 3
Montgomery: CD 5
Muscatine: CD 2
O'Brien: CD 5
Osceola: CD 5
Page: CD 5
Palo Alto: CD 4
Plymouth: CD 5
Pocahontas: CD 4
Polk: CD 3
Pottawattamie: CD 5
Poweshiek: CD 3
Ringgold: CD 5
Sac: CD 5
Scott: CD 1
Shelby: CD 5
Sioux: CD 5
Story: CD 4
Tama: CD 3
Taylor: CD 5
Union: CD 5
Van Buren: CD 2
Wapello: CD 2
Warren: CD 4
Washington: CD 2
Wayne: CD 2
Webster: CD 4
Winnebago: CD 4
Winneshiek: CD 4
Woodbury: CD 5
Worth: CD 4
Wright: CD 4

1 Democratic Party's "First Determining Step" of the delegate selection process.


  Election 2004 - Primary, Caucus, and Convention Home  
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  Events Chronologically  
  Major Events Chronologically  
  Poll Closing Times  
  Democratic "First Determining Step" Chronologically  
  Chronological Cumulative Allocation of Delegates  
Delegate Counts
  State by State Summary  
  Democratic Pledged and Unpledged Summary   --   Republican Pledged and Unpledged Summary  
  Democratic Hard and Floor Summary   --   Republican Hard and Floor Summary  
Delegate Allocation
  Democratic Quick Reference   --   Republican Quick Reference  
  Democratic Detailed Delegate Allocation   --   Republican Detailed Delegate Allocation  
  Democratic Delegate Selection and Voter Eligibility   --   Republican Delegate Selection and Voter Eligibility  
  Primaries at a Glance  
Ballot Access
  Democratic Candidates   --   Republican Candidates  
  Historical Analysis of the Presidential Nominating Process  
  Historical Analysis of the apportionment of delegate votes at the National Conventions of the two major parties  
  Primary/Caucus/Convention Glossary  
  Third Parties (Green, Libertarian, Reform)