2004 Electors for
President and Vice President
of the United States

This information was compiled for the 2000 Presidential Election
and is subject to updating and/or changes for 2004.

"Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors..."
(U.S. Constitution: Article II, Section 1, clause 2)

STATE chosen by citation on General Election
ballot as
Pledged by statute to support winning ticket?
ALABAMA Political Party organization Ala. Code 17-19-2(c) unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
ALASKA Political Party organization Ak. Statutes 15.30.020 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
ARIZONA Political Party primary election Ariz. Rev. Statutes 16-344 named slate (at-large) No
ARKANSAS Political Party state convention Ark. Code 7-8-302(1) unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
CALIFORNIA Political Party per statute Calif. Elections Code 7100, 7300 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
COLORADO Political Party state convention Colo. Rev. Statutes 1-4-302 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
CONNECTICUT Political Party state convention Conn. Gen. Statutes 9-175 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Political Party central committee D.C. Code 1-1312(d) unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (oath or affirmation required when chosen)
DELAWARE Political Party state convention Del. Code 15:3301 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
FLORIDA Political Party central committee Fla. Statutes 103.021 unnamed slate (at-large) No
GEORGIA Political Party organization Ga. Official Code 21-2-130 unnamed slate (at-large) No
HAWAII Political Party state convention Hi. Rev. Statutes 14-21 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
IDAHO Political Party state convention Ida. Code 34-707 named slate (at-large) No
ILLINOIS Political Party state convention Ill. Compiled Statutes 10-5/21-1(a) unnamed slate (at-large) No
INDIANA Political Party state convention Ind. Code 3-8-4-2 unnamed slate (at-large) No
IOWA Political Party central committee Code of Ia. 54.5
unnamed slate (at-large)
KANSAS Political Party central committee Kan. Statutes 25-804 unnamed slate (at-large) No
KENTUCKY Political Party state convention Ky. Rev. Statutes 118.325 unnamed slate (at-large) No
LOUISIANA Political Party organization La. Rev. Statutes 18:1253[A] named slate (at-large) No
MAINE Political Party state convention Me. Rev. Statutes T.21-A; 321.2[C] unnamed (1 per congressional district/ 2 at-large) Yes
MARYLAND Political Party organization Code of Md.: Art.33(Elec.Code), 8-503 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
MASSACHUSETTS Political Party central committee Mass. Gen. Laws c. 53, 8 unnamed slate (at-large) No
MICHIGAN Political Party state convention Mich. Compiled Laws 168.42 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
MINNESOTA Political Party state convention Minn. Statutes 208.03 unnamed slate (at-large) No
MISSISSIPPI Political Party state convention (nomination) / primary election (choice) Miss. Code 23-15-771 unnamed slate (at-large) No
MISSOURI Political Party central committee Mo. Rev. Statutes 115.399 unnamed slate (at-large) No
MONTANA Political Party organization Mont. Code 13-25-101 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
NEBRASKA Political Party state convention Neb. Rev. Statutes 32-710 unnamed (1 per congressional district/ 2 at-large slate) No
NEVADA Political Party state convention Nev. Rev. Statutes 298.020 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
NEW HAMPSHIRE Political Party state convention N.H. Rev. Statutes c. 655, 54 unnamed slate (at-large) No
NEW JERSEY Political Party state convention or central committee (conflicting statutes) N.J. Rev. Statutes 19:13-2 conflicts with 19:13-15 unnamed slate (at-large) No
NEW MEXICO Political Party state convention N.M. Statutes 1-15-3 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (failure to do so: subject to criminal prosecution)
NEW YORK Political Party central committee N.Y. Election Law 6-102 unnamed slate (at-large) No
NORTH CAROLINA Political Party state convention Gen. Statutes of N.C. 163-1 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (failure to do so: subject to fine)
NORTH DAKOTA Political Party state convention N.D. Century Code 16.1-03-14 named slate (at-large) No
OHIO Political Party state convention Ohio Rev. Code 3513.11 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
OKLAHOMA Political Party state convention Okla. Statutes 26-10-101 named slate (at-large) Yes (oath required: violation subject to fine)
OREGON Political Party organization Ore. Rev. Statutes 248.355 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (must sign pledge upon being chosen)
PENNSYLVANIA Political Party presidential nominee Pa. Consolidated Statutes 25*2878 unnamed slate (at-large) No
RHODE ISLAND Political Party state convention Gen. Laws of R.I. 17-12-13 named slate (at-large) No
SOUTH CAROLINA Political Party central committee Code of Laws of S.C. 7-9-90 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (declaration of intent required: violators subject to criminal prosecution)
SOUTH DAKOTA Political Party state convention S.D. Codified Laws 12-5-21 named slate (at-large) No
TENNESSEE Political Party organization Tenn. Code 2-13-203 named individually Yes (but 'free agent' if either- or both- candidates on winning ticket are deceased at the time Electors meet)
TEXAS Political Party organization Tex. Election Code 192.003 unnamed slate (at-large) No
UTAH Political Party organization Utah Code 20A-13-301 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (failure to do so: automatic resignation of Elector and replacement by vote of remaining Electors)
VERMONT Political Party state convention Vt. Statutes 17-2319, 17-2721 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
VIRGINIA Political Party state convention Code of Va. 24.2-508 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
WASHINGTON Political Party organization Rev. Code of Wash. 29.71.020 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (failure to do so: subject to fine)
WEST VIRGINIA Political Party state convention W.Va. Code 3-5-21 unnamed slate (at-large) No
WISCONSIN Political Party state legislative candidates and state officers Wis. Statutes 8.18 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes (unless candidate is deceased)
WYOMING Political Party state convention Wyo. Statutes 22-19-102 unnamed slate (at-large) Yes
Place and Time of Meeting on December 13, 2004
May Electors Defect?
THE "FAITHLESS SEVEN" - Presidential Electors who have defected in the past

chosen by

Political Party
"Political Party", of course, refers to a political party which has either nominated candidates for President or Vice-President who have been automatically accepted- under State Election Law regarding automatic ballot access- on the General Election ballot or has successfully achieved ballot access for its candidates for President and Vice-President in the General Election through the procedures of nomination by petition supplied by State Election law. The element of the political party making the actual choice- as listed herein- usually applies only to Major Parties; state law generally allows minor parties and independent candidates for President to file their electors as part of the petitioning process.
central committee
"central committee" usually means the state committee of the political party actually chooses the party's Presidential Electors for the upcoming presidential election; however, in some states, it may mean the state central committee of the political party is free to designate another method (state convention, primary election, etc.) of choice without state oversight.
"organization" means the political party is pretty much free to choose its method of nominating Presidential Electors (that is, it may use a state convention, a state primary election or have the state party central committee or even its chairperson[s] choose the Electors without any state input re: how the Party goes about this).
per statute
"per statute" means that the Political Parties- their organization, committee makeups, etc.- are regulated by state statute, including how each Party chooses its Presidential Electors. In CALIFORNIA, of the Major Parties, the Democrats allow the party's most recent nominees for U.S. House and Senate choose the Electors (each candidate choosing one Elector) while the Republicans leave the choice of Electors to a committee made up of recent nominees for statewide office, state legislative leaders and other important party officials.
primary election
"primary election" means the political party MUST use the regularly scheduled state/local primary election to choose its Presidential Electors for the upcoming presidential election.
state convention
"state convention" means the Party MUST use its state convention to choose its Presidential Electors for the upcoming presidential election.


the statutory citation refers to the specific code section in state law which determines the methods by which those who will, if elected via the General Election for president, be "appointed" Presidential Electors from a given state. The method of citation is, as close as is possible, that used in the Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest.

on General Election ballot as

"unnamed" means the names of the Electors do NOT appear on the ballot: only the names of the candidates for President and Vice-President appear.
"named" means the names of the Electors DO appear on the ballot: usually next to either the surnames or full names of the candidates for President and Vice-President.
"slate" means that the Electors (whether named or unnamed) are chosen as a slate: that is, the voter cannot pick and choose between Electors from different Parties (and, by definition, pledged to different Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates)... this is probably a given for "unnamed" Electors, but not necessarily so with "named" Electors!
"at-large", of course, means that the votes for Electors are counted statewide and all Presidential Electors are "appointed"- however indirectly- by the results of the popular vote for President statewide. (Where some Electors are "appointed" by the results of the popular vote for President by district- as is the case in MAINE and NEBRASKA- the type of district is so indicated).

Pledged by statute to support winning ticket?

Pledged by statute to support winning ticket?
This is a tricky area: in many states which so require by law [marked "Yes" in the table], the statute specifically states that the Electors shall [or must] cast their ballots to the national ticket which received the most popular votes; in other states, the statute is not so specific- however, the language regarding how the vote of the voter is to be applied to the allocation of Electors implies just such a pledge. When in doubt, this column has been marked "No"- the reason being that these state laws pledging (or implying a pledge of) the Electors to vote for the winning national ticket are of dubious constitutionality (theoretically, the Electors- like U.S. Senators- though representing the State, are Federal officers: the State cannot legally "instruct" Federal officers which, nonetheless, represent it; thus, at least in theory, the Electors are 'free agents' who can cast their ballots for President and Vice President as they see fit- the only check on this being whether or not the Joint Session of Congress which counts and tabulates the Electoral Vote accepts the Elector's votes as valid. Keep in mind, however, that- even re: States where this column reads "No"- there may be political party intradiscipline which will keep an "appointed" Presidential Elector from not voting for the winning ticket!)

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Electoral College
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  Duly Appointed Electors     Tabulation by Congress (6 January)  
  May Electors Defect?  
  THE "FAITHLESS ELECTORS" - Presidential Electors who have defected in the past  
  Contests to Watch and Polling Data  
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