The Math Behind the 2020 Census
Apportionment of Representatives

 
Disclaimer:
These pages contain a estimated data.
The information posted here is subject to change.
  • The data presented is based on the 1 July 2020 Estimate by the Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau released 22 December 2020.

View the PERL script used to generate the data below.


The formula used to determine the number of House Seats for each State
is the Method of Equal Proportions. Each State is automatically assigned
one seat to start with (as each State MUST have at least one seat in
Congress). First, assign seats 1 thru 50 of 435.

1: Alabama, Population 4921532
2: Alaska, Population 731158
3: Arizona, Population 7421401
4: Arkansas, Population 3030522
5: California, Population 39368078
6: Colorado, Population 5807719
7: Connecticut, Population 3557006
8: Delaware, Population 986809
9: Florida, Population 21733312
10: Georgia, Population 10710017
11: Hawaii, Population 1407006
12: Idaho, Population 1826913
13: Illinois, Population 12587530
14: Indiana, Population 6754953
15: Iowa, Population 3163561
16: Kansas, Population 2913805
17: Kentucky, Population 4477251
18: Louisiana, Population 4645318
19: Maine, Population 1350141
20: Maryland, Population 6055802
21: Massachusetts, Population 6893574
22: Michigan, Population 9966555
23: Minnesota, Population 5657342
24: Mississippi, Population 2966786
25: Missouri, Population 6151548
26: Montana, Population 1080577
27: Nebraska, Population 1937552
28: Nevada, Population 3138259
29: New Hampshire, Population 1366275
30: New Jersey, Population 8882371
31: New Mexico, Population 2106319
32: New York, Population 19336776
33: North Carolina, Population 10600823
34: North Dakota, Population 765309
35: Ohio, Population 11693217
36: Oklahoma, Population 3980783
37: Oregon, Population 4241507
38: Pennsylvania, Population 12783254
39: Rhode Island, Population 1057125
40: South Carolina, Population 5218040
41: South Dakota, Population 892717
42: Tennessee, Population 6886834
43: Texas, Population 29360759
44: Utah, Population 3249879
45: Vermont, Population 623347
46: Virginia, Population 8590563
47: Washington, Population 7693612
48: West Virginia, Population 1784787
49: Wisconsin, Population 5832655
50: Wyoming, Population 582328

Total Population = 328771307

Equal Proportions are used to determine which states shall receive
seats 51 thru 435. Divide each State's population by the square root
of n(n-1) where n equals the number of potential seats for a given
State. The result is called the Priority Value.

Priority Value = Population ÷ SQRT( ( N×(N-1) ) );
where N = potential seats (2 to 53) for the state

Assign seats 51 to 435 from those states with the largest priority values.

51: California Seat 2, PV=27837434
52: Texas Seat 2, PV=20761191
53: California Seat 3, PV=16071950
54: Florida Seat 2, PV=15367772
55: New York Seat 2, PV=13673165
56: Texas Seat 3, PV=11986479
57: California Seat 4, PV=11364585
58: Pennsylvania Seat 2, PV=9039125
59: Illinois Seat 2, PV=8900727
60: Florida Seat 3, PV=8872587
61: California Seat 5, PV=8802969
62: Texas Seat 4, PV=8475721
63: Ohio Seat 2, PV=8268353
64: New York Seat 3, PV=7894205
65: Georgia Seat 2, PV=7573125
66: North Carolina Seat 2, PV=7495913
67: California Seat 6, PV=7187594
68: Michigan Seat 2, PV=7047418
69: Texas Seat 5, PV=6565265
70: New Jersey Seat 2, PV=6280784
71: Florida Seat 4, PV=6273866
72: California Seat 7, PV=6074626
73: Virginia Seat 2, PV=6074445
74: New York Seat 4, PV=5582046
75: Washington Seat 2, PV=5440205
76: Texas Seat 6, PV=5360516
77: California Seat 8, PV=5260780
78: Arizona Seat 2, PV=5247722
79: Pennsylvania Seat 3, PV=5218741
80: Illinois Seat 3, PV=5138837
81: Massachusetts Seat 2, PV=4874492
82: Tennessee Seat 2, PV=4869727
83: Florida Seat 5, PV=4859716
84: Indiana Seat 2, PV=4776473
85: Ohio Seat 3, PV=4773735
86: California Seat 9, PV=4639572
87: Texas Seat 7, PV=4530463
88: Georgia Seat 3, PV=4372346
89: Missouri Seat 2, PV=4349801
90: North Carolina Seat 3, PV=4327767
91: New York Seat 5, PV=4323834
92: Maryland Seat 2, PV=4282098
93: California Seat 10, PV=4149759
94: Wisconsin Seat 2, PV=4124309
95: Colorado Seat 2, PV=4106677
96: Michigan Seat 3, PV=4068829
97: Minnesota Seat 2, PV=4000344
98: Florida Seat 6, PV=3967941
99: Texas Seat 8, PV=3923496
100: California Seat 11, PV=3753598
101: Pennsylvania Seat 4, PV=3690207
102: South Carolina Seat 2, PV=3689711
103: Illinois Seat 4, PV=3633706
104: New Jersey Seat 3, PV=3626212
105: New York Seat 6, PV=3530396
106: Virginia Seat 3, PV=3507082
107: Alabama Seat 2, PV=3480048
108: Texas Seat 9, PV=3460198
109: California Seat 12, PV=3426551
110: Ohio Seat 4, PV=3375540
111: Florida Seat 7, PV=3353522
112: Louisiana Seat 2, PV=3284735
113: Kentucky Seat 2, PV=3165894
114: California Seat 13, PV=3151968
115: Washington Seat 3, PV=3140903
116: Texas Seat 10, PV=3094895
117: Georgia Seat 4, PV=3091715
118: North Carolina Seat 4, PV=3060194
119: Arizona Seat 3, PV=3029774
120: Oregon Seat 2, PV=2999198
121: New York Seat 7, PV=2983729
122: California Seat 14, PV=2918156
123: Florida Seat 8, PV=2904235
124: Michigan Seat 4, PV=2877096
125: Pennsylvania Seat 5, PV=2858422
126: Oklahoma Seat 2, PV=2814838
127: Illinois Seat 5, PV=2814657
128: Massachusetts Seat 3, PV=2814289
129: Tennessee Seat 3, PV=2811538
130: Texas Seat 11, PV=2799438
131: Indiana Seat 3, PV=2757698
132: California Seat 15, PV=2716655
133: Ohio Seat 5, PV=2614682
134: New York Seat 8, PV=2583985
135: New Jersey Seat 4, PV=2564119
136: Florida Seat 9, PV=2561295
137: Texas Seat 12, PV=2555526
138: California Seat 16, PV=2541198
139: Connecticut Seat 2, PV=2515183
140: Missouri Seat 3, PV=2511358
141: Virginia Seat 4, PV=2479881
142: Maryland Seat 3, PV=2472270
143: Georgia Seat 5, PV=2394832
144: California Seat 17, PV=2387040
145: Wisconsin Seat 3, PV=2381171
146: Colorado Seat 3, PV=2370991
147: North Carolina Seat 5, PV=2370416
148: Texas Seat 13, PV=2350742
149: Pennsylvania Seat 6, PV=2333892
150: Minnesota Seat 3, PV=2309600
151: Illinois Seat 6, PV=2298158
152: Utah Seat 2, PV=2298011
153: Florida Seat 10, PV=2290892
154: New York Seat 9, PV=2278860
155: California Seat 18, PV=2250523
156: Iowa Seat 2, PV=2236975
157: Michigan Seat 5, PV=2228589
158: Washington Seat 4, PV=2220954
159: Nevada Seat 2, PV=2219084
160: Texas Seat 14, PV=2176364
161: Arkansas Seat 2, PV=2142902
162: Arizona Seat 4, PV=2142373
163: Ohio Seat 6, PV=2134879
164: South Carolina Seat 3, PV=2130255
165: California Seat 19, PV=2128781
166: Mississippi Seat 2, PV=2097834
167: Florida Seat 11, PV=2072189
168: Kansas Seat 2, PV=2060371
169: New York Seat 10, PV=2038275
170: Texas Seat 15, PV=2026084
171: California Seat 20, PV=2019539
172: Alabama Seat 3, PV=2009207
173: Massachusetts Seat 4, PV=1990003
174: Tennessee Seat 4, PV=1988057
175: New Jersey Seat 5, PV=1986158
176: Pennsylvania Seat 7, PV=1972498
177: Georgia Seat 6, PV=1955372
178: Indiana Seat 4, PV=1949986
179: Illinois Seat 7, PV=1942298
180: North Carolina Seat 6, PV=1935436
181: California Seat 21, PV=1920965
182: Virginia Seat 5, PV=1920908
183: Louisiana Seat 3, PV=1896443
184: Texas Seat 16, PV=1895228
185: Florida Seat 12, PV=1891642
186: New York Seat 11, PV=1843689
187: California Seat 22, PV=1831568
188: Kentucky Seat 3, PV=1827830
189: Michigan Seat 6, PV=1819635
190: Ohio Seat 7, PV=1804302
191: Texas Seat 17, PV=1780257
192: Missouri Seat 4, PV=1775798
193: California Seat 23, PV=1750124
194: Maryland Seat 4, PV=1748159
195: Florida Seat 13, PV=1740057
196: Oregon Seat 3, PV=1731587
197: Washington Seat 5, PV=1720343
198: Pennsylvania Seat 8, PV=1708234
199: Wisconsin Seat 4, PV=1683742
200: New York Seat 12, PV=1683050
201: Illinois Seat 8, PV=1682079
202: Texas Seat 18, PV=1678442
203: Colorado Seat 4, PV=1676544
204: California Seat 24, PV=1675616
205: Arizona Seat 5, PV=1659475
206: Georgia Seat 7, PV=1652591
207: North Carolina Seat 7, PV=1635742
208: Minnesota Seat 4, PV=1633133
209: Oklahoma Seat 3, PV=1625147
210: New Jersey Seat 6, PV=1621691
211: Florida Seat 14, PV=1610980
212: California Seat 25, PV=1607195
213: Texas Seat 19, PV=1587648
214: Virginia Seat 6, PV=1568415
215: Ohio Seat 8, PV=1562571
216: New York Seat 13, PV=1548181
217: California Seat 26, PV=1544143
218: Massachusetts Seat 5, PV=1541450
219: Tennessee Seat 5, PV=1539942
220: Michigan Seat 7, PV=1537872
221: Indiana Seat 5, PV=1510453
222: Pennsylvania Seat 9, PV=1506520
223: South Carolina Seat 4, PV=1506318
224: Texas Seat 20, PV=1506175
225: Florida Seat 15, PV=1499741
226: New Mexico Seat 2, PV=1489392
227: California Seat 27, PV=1485852
228: Illinois Seat 9, PV=1483454
229: Connecticut Seat 3, PV=1452141
230: New York Seat 14, PV=1433337
231: Texas Seat 21, PV=1432658
232: California Seat 28, PV=1431803
233: Georgia Seat 8, PV=1431186
234: Alabama Seat 4, PV=1420723
235: North Carolina Seat 8, PV=1416594
236: Washington Seat 6, PV=1404654
237: Florida Seat 16, PV=1402879
238: California Seat 29, PV=1381548
239: Ohio Seat 9, PV=1378058
240: Missouri Seat 5, PV=1375527
241: New Jersey Seat 7, PV=1370579
242: Nebraska Seat 2, PV=1370056
243: Texas Seat 22, PV=1365986
244: Arizona Seat 6, PV=1354956
245: Maryland Seat 5, PV=1354118
246: Pennsylvania Seat 10, PV=1347473
247: Louisiana Seat 4, PV=1340987
248: California Seat 30, PV=1334702
249: New York Seat 15, PV=1334364
250: Michigan Seat 8, PV=1331836
251: Illinois Seat 10, PV=1326842
252: Utah Seat 3, PV=1326757
253: Virginia Seat 7, PV=1325552
254: Florida Seat 17, PV=1317775
255: Texas Seat 23, PV=1305244
256: Wisconsin Seat 5, PV=1304221
257: Colorado Seat 5, PV=1298645
258: Kentucky Seat 4, PV=1292471
259: Idaho Seat 2, PV=1291822
260: Iowa Seat 3, PV=1291518
261: California Seat 31, PV=1290930
262: Nevada Seat 3, PV=1281188
263: Minnesota Seat 5, PV=1265020
264: Georgia Seat 9, PV=1262187
265: West Virginia Seat 2, PV=1262034
266: Massachusetts Seat 6, PV=1258588
267: Tennessee Seat 6, PV=1257358
268: California Seat 32, PV=1249937
269: Texas Seat 24, PV=1249676
270: North Carolina Seat 9, PV=1249318
271: New York Seat 16, PV=1248183
272: Florida Seat 18, PV=1242410
273: Arkansas Seat 3, PV=1237205
274: Indiana Seat 6, PV=1233280
275: Ohio Seat 10, PV=1232573
276: Oregon Seat 4, PV=1224417
277: Pennsylvania Seat 11, PV=1218835
278: California Seat 33, PV=1211468
279: Mississippi Seat 3, PV=1211185
280: Illinois Seat 11, PV=1200173
281: Texas Seat 25, PV=1198647
282: Kansas Seat 3, PV=1189555
283: Washington Seat 7, PV=1187150
284: New Jersey Seat 8, PV=1186956
285: California Seat 34, PV=1175297
286: Florida Seat 19, PV=1175202
287: Michigan Seat 9, PV=1174569
288: New York Seat 17, PV=1172464
289: South Carolina Seat 5, PV=1166789
290: Texas Seat 26, PV=1151623
291: Oklahoma Seat 4, PV=1149153
292: Virginia Seat 8, PV=1147962
293: Arizona Seat 7, PV=1145147
294: California Seat 35, PV=1141223
295: Georgia Seat 10, PV=1128934
296: Missouri Seat 6, PV=1123113
297: North Carolina Seat 10, PV=1117424
298: Ohio Seat 11, PV=1114904
299: Florida Seat 20, PV=1114895
300: Pennsylvania Seat 12, PV=1112639
301: California Seat 36, PV=1109069
302: Texas Seat 27, PV=1108150
303: Maryland Seat 6, PV=1105633
304: New York Seat 18, PV=1105409
305: Alabama Seat 5, PV=1100488
306: Illinois Seat 12, PV=1095603
307: California Seat 37, PV=1078678
308: Texas Seat 28, PV=1067840
309: Wisconsin Seat 6, PV=1064892
310: Massachusetts Seat 7, PV=1063701
311: Tennessee Seat 7, PV=1062661
312: Florida Seat 21, PV=1060477
313: Colorado Seat 6, PV=1060339
314: Michigan Seat 10, PV=1050567
315: California Seat 38, PV=1049908
316: New Jersey Seat 9, PV=1046797
317: New York Seat 19, PV=1045613
318: Indiana Seat 7, PV=1042311
319: Louisiana Seat 5, PV=1038724
320: Minnesota Seat 6, PV=1032884
321: Texas Seat 29, PV=1030360
322: Washington Seat 8, PV=1028102
323: Connecticut Seat 4, PV=1026819
324: Pennsylvania Seat 13, PV=1023479
325: California Seat 39, PV=1022633
326: Georgia Seat 11, PV=1021160
327: Ohio Seat 12, PV=1017763
328: Virginia Seat 9, PV=1012407
329: Florida Seat 22, PV=1011125
330: North Carolina Seat 11, PV=1010748
331: Illinois Seat 13, PV=1007808
332: Kentucky Seat 5, PV=1001143
333: California Seat 40, PV=996740
334: Texas Seat 30, PV=995422
335: Hawaii Seat 2, PV=994903
336: New York Seat 20, PV=991955
337: Arizona Seat 8, PV=991726
338: California Seat 41, PV=972125
339: Florida Seat 23, PV=966163
340: New Hampshire Seat 2, PV=966102
341: Texas Seat 31, PV=962777
342: Maine Seat 2, PV=954693
343: South Carolina Seat 6, PV=952679
344: Michigan Seat 11, PV=950273
345: Missouri Seat 7, PV=949204
346: California Seat 42, PV=948697
347: Oregon Seat 5, PV=948429
348: Pennsylvania Seat 14, PV=947557
349: New York Seat 21, PV=943538
350: Utah Seat 4, PV=938159
351: New Jersey Seat 10, PV=936284
352: Ohio Seat 13, PV=936206
353: Maryland Seat 7, PV=934430
354: Illinois Seat 14, PV=933049
355: Texas Seat 32, PV=932205
356: Georgia Seat 12, PV=932187
357: California Seat 43, PV=926371
358: Florida Seat 24, PV=925031
359: North Carolina Seat 12, PV=922683
360: Massachusetts Seat 8, PV=921192
361: Tennessee Seat 8, PV=920291
362: Iowa Seat 4, PV=913241
363: Washington Seat 9, PV=906700
364: Nevada Seat 4, PV=905937
365: Virginia Seat 10, PV=905524
366: California Seat 44, PV=905073
367: Texas Seat 33, PV=903514
368: Indiana Seat 8, PV=902668
369: Wisconsin Seat 7, PV=899998
370: New York Seat 22, PV=899628
371: Alabama Seat 6, PV=898544
372: Colorado Seat 7, PV=896150
373: Oklahoma Seat 5, PV=890130
374: Florida Seat 25, PV=887258
375: California Seat 45, PV=884731
376: Pennsylvania Seat 15, PV=882128
377: Texas Seat 34, PV=876538
378: Arkansas Seat 4, PV=874836
379: Arizona Seat 9, PV=874620
380: Minnesota Seat 7, PV=872946
381: Illinois Seat 15, PV=868622
382: Michigan Seat 12, PV=867477
383: Ohio Seat 14, PV=866758
384: California Seat 46, PV=865284
385: New Mexico Seat 3, PV=859901
386: New York Seat 23, PV=859624
387: Georgia Seat 13, PV=857487
388: Mississippi Seat 4, PV=856437
389: Florida Seat 26, PV=852450
390: Texas Seat 35, PV=851125
391: North Carolina Seat 13, PV=848745
392: Louisiana Seat 6, PV=848115
393: New Jersey Seat 11, PV=846900
394: California Seat 47, PV=846674
395: Kansas Seat 4, PV=841143
396: California Seat 48, PV=828847
397: Texas Seat 36, PV=827145
398: Pennsylvania Seat 16, PV=825155
399: New York Seat 24, PV=823027
400: Missouri Seat 8, PV=822035
401: Florida Seat 27, PV=820271
402: Virginia Seat 11, PV=819078
403: Kentucky Seat 6, PV=817430
404: Illinois Seat 16, PV=812521
405: Massachusetts Seat 9, PV=812415
406: California Seat 49, PV=811756
407: Tennessee Seat 9, PV=811621
408: Washington Seat 10, PV=810977
409: Maryland Seat 8, PV=809240
410: Ohio Seat 15, PV=806908
411: South Carolina Seat 7, PV=805161
412: Texas Seat 37, PV=804479
413: Michigan Seat 13, PV=797963
414: Indiana Seat 9, PV=796078
415: Connecticut Seat 5, PV=795370
416: California Seat 50, PV=795355
417: Georgia Seat 14, PV=793879
418: Nebraska Seat 3, PV=791002
419: Florida Seat 28, PV=790432
420: New York Seat 25, PV=789420
421: North Carolina Seat 14, PV=785785
422: Texas Seat 38, PV=783023
423: Arizona Seat 10, PV=782284
424: California Seat 51, PV=779604
425: Wisconsin Seat 8, PV=779421
426: Colorado Seat 8, PV=776089
427: Pennsylvania Seat 17, PV=775098
428: Oregon Seat 6, PV=774389
429: New Jersey Seat 12, PV=773111
430: California Seat 52, PV=764464
431: Montana Seat 2, PV=764083
432: Illinois Seat 17, PV=763231
433: Florida Seat 29, PV=762689
434: Texas Seat 39, PV=762681
435: Alabama Seat 7, PV=759408

Just for grins show where additional seats would have gone.

436: New York Seat 26, PV=758450
437: Minnesota Seat 8, PV=755994
438: Ohio Seat 16, PV=754793
439: California Seat 53, PV=749902
440: Virginia Seat 12, PV=747712
441: Rhode Island Seat 2, PV=747500
442: Idaho Seat 3, PV=745834
443: Texas Seat 40, PV=743369
444: Georgia Seat 15, PV=739061
445: Michigan Seat 14, PV=738770

Show how many House Seats each state received.

Alabama - 7 seats
Alaska - 1 seats
Arizona - 10 seats
Arkansas - 4 seats
California - 52 seats
Colorado - 8 seats
Connecticut - 5 seats
Delaware - 1 seats
Florida - 29 seats
Georgia - 14 seats
Hawaii - 2 seats
Idaho - 2 seats
Illinois - 17 seats
Indiana - 9 seats
Iowa - 4 seats
Kansas - 4 seats
Kentucky - 6 seats
Louisiana - 6 seats
Maine - 2 seats
Maryland - 8 seats
Massachusetts - 9 seats
Michigan - 13 seats
Minnesota - 7 seats
Mississippi - 4 seats
Missouri - 8 seats
Montana - 2 seats
Nebraska - 3 seats
Nevada - 4 seats
New Hampshire - 2 seats
New Jersey - 12 seats
New Mexico - 3 seats
New York - 25 seats
North Carolina - 14 seats
North Dakota - 1 seats
Ohio - 15 seats
Oklahoma - 5 seats
Oregon - 6 seats
Pennsylvania - 17 seats
Rhode Island - 1 seats
South Carolina - 7 seats
South Dakota - 1 seats
Tennessee - 9 seats
Texas - 39 seats
Utah - 4 seats
Vermont - 1 seats
Virginia - 11 seats
Washington - 10 seats
West Virginia - 2 seats
Wisconsin - 8 seats
Wyoming - 1 seats
 


  United States Census 2020 Home  
 
  State Population and the Distribution of Electoral Votes and Representatives  
  2022 - 2030 Federal Representation by People per House Seat, Senate Seat, and Electors  
 
  An Historical Analysis of the Electoral College  
 
  The Math Behind the 2020 Census Apportionment of Representatives  
  PERL script used to generate the Apportionment