The Green Papers: 2022 General Election
 
Copyright www.flags.net/UNST.htm 117th Congress
Senate Seats by State

This is a list of the current Senate seats and the incumbents occupying them. Not counting special elections, 33 Senate Seats are up for election on 8 November 2022.

There have been 0 deaths, 1 resignation, and 0 changes re: party breakdown in the 117th Senate.

  • Senator Alex Padilla (Democratic, California Class 3) was appointed on 22 December 2020 by Governor Gavin Newsom (Democratic). He will fill the seat of Senator Kamala D. Harris who has been elected to the office of Vice President. Senator Padilla was sworn on 20 January 2021.
  • Senator Kamala D. Harris (Democratic, California Class 3) resigned on 18 January 2021 to take the office of Vice President of the United States.
  • Senator Raphael Warnock (Democratic, Georgia, Class 3) was elected in a 5 January 2021 Special Election. He replaces appointed Senator Kelly Loeffler (Republican) and was sworn on 20 January 2021.
  • Senator T. Jonathan "Jon" Ossoff (Democratic, Georgia, Class 2) was elected in a 5 January 2021 runoff election was sworn on 20 January 2021.

  Alabama    Alaska    Arizona    Arkansas    California    Colorado    Connecticut    Delaware    Florida    Georgia    Hawaii    Idaho    Illinois    Indiana    Iowa    Kansas    Kentucky    Louisiana    Maine    Maryland    Massachusetts    Michigan    Minnesota    Mississippi    Missouri    Montana    Nebraska    Nevada    New Hampshire    New Jersey    New Mexico    New York    North Carolina    North Dakota    Ohio    Oklahoma    Oregon    Pennsylvania    Rhode Island    South Carolina    South Dakota    Tennessee    Texas    Utah    Vermont    Virginia    Washington    West Virginia    Wisconsin    Wyoming 

Legislative Links     Senate Electoral Classes

           

Alabama  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Candidate Democratic     former City of Greenville, Illinois Council Member Willie Eugene "Will" Boyd, Jr.
FEC S2AL00251; 30 Jun 22; Tot $54,316; Dsb $53,395

Alaska  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Patricia "Pat" Chesbro
16 August 2022 primary: Advances to General Election with 7%, 3rd place.

FEC S2AK00226; 27 Jul 22; Tot $49,603; Dsb $38,549

Arizona  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Kyrsten Sinema
FEC S8AZ00197

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Mark Kelly
FEC S0AZ00350; 13 Jul 22; Tot $54,141,015; Dsb $30,754,829
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Ty McLean, Jr.
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Todd Smeltzer
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     William "Will" Taylor

Arkansas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
    Democratic     former Pine Bluff Council Member Jack Edward Foster - lost primary
FEC S2AR00123
  Candidate Democratic     Natalie James
FEC S2AR00115; 30 Jun 22; Tot $46,783; Dsb $32,191
    Democratic     Daniel Allen "Dan" Whitfield - lost primary
FEC S0AR00218; 30 Jun 22; Tot $33,702; Dsb $54,002

California  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Joshua Bocanegra
FEC S4CA00456
  Candidate Democratic     Senator Dianne Feinstein
FEC S0CA00199
  Candidate Democratic     Jeremy Fennell
FEC S4CA00449
  Candidate Democratic     Diane Foxington
FEC S4CA00472
  Candidate Democratic     Carson Henry Franklin, Jr.
FEC S4CA00423

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Alex Padilla
FEC S2CA00955; 30 Jun 22; Tot $10,446,727; Dsb $3,538,122

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Alex Padilla
FEC S2CA00955; 30 Jun 22; Tot $10,446,727; Dsb $3,538,122

Colorado  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Michael Farrand Bennet
FEC S0CO00211; 30 Jun 22; Tot $13,010,453; Dsb $5,475,690

Connecticut  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Christopher Scott "Chris" Murphy
FEC S2CT00132

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic; Working Families     Senator  Richard Blumenthal
FEC S0CT00177; 30 Jun 22; Tot $6,184,198; Dsb $1,776,554

Delaware  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Thomas R. "Tom" Carper
FEC S8DE00079

Florida  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Josue Larose
FEC S4FL00462

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Member of Congress  Valdez "Val" Demings
18 May 2021: Running for the Senate Class 3 seat in 2022.
CD 10.

FEC S2FL00631; 03 Aug 22; Tot $47,857,506; Dsb $39,811,371

Georgia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
    Democratic     Tamara Johnson-Shealey - lost primary
FEC S0GA00484; 30 Jun 22; Tot $61,920; Dsb $51,794
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Raphael Gamaliel Warnock
FEC S0GA00559; 30 Jun 22; Tot $84,914,584; Dsb $85,457,928

Hawaii  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Mazie K. Hirono
FEC S2HI00106

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Brian Emanuel Schatz
FEC S4HI00136; 24 Jul 22; Tot $2,041,744; Dsb $1,636,393

Idaho  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     David Jordan Roth
FEC S2ID00178; 30 Jun 22; Tot $26,147; Dsb $20,225

Illinois  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  L. Tammy Duckworth
FEC S6IL00292; 30 Jun 22; Tot $11,451,557; Dsb $6,143,852

Indiana  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Lauren Bushman
FEC S4IN00147

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Hammond Mayor  Thomas M. "Tom" McDermott, Jr.
FEC S2IN00208; 30 Jun 22; Tot $661,105; Dsb $495,666
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic; Independent)     Phillip D. Beachy
Lost the 3 May 2022 Democratic Primary in US House CD 3

FEC H4IN04032
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic; Independent)     Haneefah Khaaliq
FEC S2IN00133; 30 Jun 22; Tot $45,201; Dsb $40,352

Iowa  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Michael T. "Mike" Franken
FEC S2IA00172; 30 Jun 22; Tot $4,633,292; Dsb $3,531,503

Kansas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
    Democratic     Mike Andra - lost primary
FEC S2KS00147
    Democratic     Paul Buskirk - lost primary
FEC S2KS00139; 12 Jul 22; Tot $13,658; Dsb $6,005
  Candidate Democratic     former Kansas City Mayor Mark R. Holland
FEC S2KS00113; 13 Jul 22; Tot $437,101; Dsb $305,800
    Democratic     Robert Joseph Klingenberg - lost primary
FEC S2KS00121; 13 Jul 22; Tot $4,647; Dsb $4,596
    Democratic     Michael Alan "Mike Soetaert - lost primary
FEC S2KS00097
    Democratic     Patrick Wiesner - lost primary
FEC S0KS00166; 13 Jul 22; Tot $10,000; Dsb $2,286

Kentucky  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     former state Representative Charles Booker
FEC S0KY00420; 30 Jun 22; Tot $4,539,153; Dsb $3,638,988
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Charles Lee "Lee" Thomason
FEC S2KY00202

Louisiana  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Gary Chambers, Jr.
FEC S2LA00150; 02 Jul 22; Tot $1,380,898; Dsb $1,320,737
  Candidate Democratic     Manlio Vinicio "MV" "Vinny" Mendoza
FEC S2LA00184
  Candidate Democratic     "Luke" Mixon
FEC S2LA00135; 02 Jul 22; Tot $1,113,210; Dsb $528,959
  Candidate Democratic     Salvador P. Rodriguez
  Candidate Democratic     Syrita Steib
FEC S2LA00168; 02 Jul 22; Tot $183,658; Dsb $167,804

Maryland  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Benjamin L. "Ben" Cardin
FEC S6MD03177

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Christopher "Chris" Van Hollen, Jr.
FEC S6MD03441; 29 Jun 22; Tot $5,814,677; Dsb $3,085,584
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Scottie Griffin
Candidacy for General Election Only

FEC S2MD00628

Massachusetts  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Elizabeth A. Warren
FEC S2MA00170

Class 2  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Edward John "Ed" Markey
FEC S4MA00028

Michigan  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Debbie Stabenow
FEC S8MI00281

Missouri  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Candidate Democratic     Trudy Busch Valentine
FEC S2MO00692; 13 Jul 22; Tot $3,415,785; Dsb $2,717,538

Nevada  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Jacklyn S. "Jacky" Rosen
FEC S8NV00156

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Catherine Marie Cortez Masto
FEC S6NV00200; 30 Jun 22; Tot $23,605,210; Dsb $16,779,708

New Hampshire  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Margaret Wood "Maggie" Hassan
FEC S6NH00091; 24 Aug 22; Tot $26,103,142; Dsb $21,037,291
    Democratic     Paul J. Krautmann - lost primary
FEC S0NH00359
    Democratic     John Riggieri - lost primary
FEC S2NH00314

New Jersey  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Robert "Bob" Menendez
FEC S6NJ00289

New Mexico  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Martin Trevor Heinrich
FEC S2NM00088

New York  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Kirsten Elizabeth Gillibrand
FEC S0NY00410

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic; Working Families     Senator  Charles E. "Chuck" Schumer
FEC S8NY00082; 30 Jun 22; Tot $35,091,030; Dsb $7,453,352

North Carolina  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Candidate Democratic     former state Supreme Court Chief Justice Cheri Lynn Beasley
FEC S2NC00497; 30 Jun 22; Tot $16,023,250; Dsb $11,201,323

Ohio  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Sherrod Brown
FEC S6OH00163

Class 3  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Candidate Democratic     Member of Congress  Timothy J. "Tim" Ryan
US House CD 13.
26 April 2021: Announced run for the U.S. Senate Class 3 seat. "I'm running for U.S. Senate to fight like hell to cut workers in on the deal...."

FEC S2OH00402; 30 Jun 22; Tot $21,773,132; Dsb $18,205,956

Oklahoma  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 2  
  Candidate Democratic     former Member of Congress  Kendra Horn
First elected: 2018; unsuccessful candidate for reelection: 2020.

FEC S2OK00228; 30 Jun 22; Tot $761,525; Dsb $526,014

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Madison Horn
FEC S2OK00152; 03 Aug 22; Tot $157,453; Dsb $140,650

Oregon  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic; Independent Party of Oregon     Senator  Ronald Lee "Ron" Wyden
FEC S6OR00110; 30 Jun 22; Tot $9,192,702; Dsb $2,607,048

Pennsylvania  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Robert P. "Bob" Casey, Jr.
FEC S6PA00217

Class 3  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Candidate Democratic     Lieutenant Governor  John Karl Fetterman
13 May 2022: Suffered a stroke and expects a full recovery.

FEC S6PA00274; 30 Jun 22; Tot $26,051,773; Dsb $20,553,221
    Democratic     state Representative  Malcolm Kenyatta - lost primary
FEC S2PA00398; 30 Jun 22; Tot $1,999,860; Dsb $1,937,936
    Democratic     Alexandria Gloria "Alex" Khalil - lost primary
FEC S2PA00406; 08 Nov 22; Tot $21,479; Dsb $21,479
    Democratic     Member of Congress  Conor James Lamb - lost primary
Congressman District 17

FEC S2PA00562; 30 Jun 22; Tot $6,349,146; Dsb $7,042,091

Rhode Island  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Sheldon Whitehouse, II
FEC S6RI00221

South Carolina  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
    Democratic     Catherine Fleming Bruce - lost primary
Advances to 28 June 2022 Runoff

FEC S2SC00145; 30 Jun 22; Tot $28,402; Dsb $22,151
    Democratic     Angela Geter - lost primary
FEC S2SC00111; 30 Jun 22; Tot $17,173; Dsb $17,118
  Candidate Democratic     state Representative  Krystle N. Matthews
Advances to and won the 28 June 2022 Runoff

FEC S2SC00103; 30 Jun 22; Tot $108,100; Dsb $64,703

South Dakota  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Brian L. Bengs
FEC S2SD00126; 30 Jun 22; Tot $151,532; Dsb $120,225

Tennessee  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Dylan Lee Fain
FEC S4TN00500

Texas  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Aaron Arguijo
FEC S4TX00599
  Candidate Democratic     former Midland City Councilman John Love
FEC S0TX00308
  Candidate Democratic     Teresa Danise Naranjo
FEC S4TX00615
  Candidate Democratic     Heli Rodriguez-Prilliman
FEC S4TX00607

Utah  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Unaffiliated; (Democratic; United Utah)     David Evan "Evan" McMullin
FEC S2UT00369; 30 Jun 22; Tot $3,264,480; Dsb $1,982,020

Vermont  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Independent, 1 Democratic

Class 3  
 ** Open Seat (no incumbent) **
  Candidate Democratic     Member of Congress  Peter Francis Welch
22 November 2021: Running for the U.S. Senate in 2022.

FEC S2VT00235; 20 Jul 22; Tot $4,611,564; Dsb $1,848,582

Virginia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Timothy Michael "Tim" Kaine
FEC S2VA00142
  Candidate Democratic     Zoey Maria King
FEC S2VA00217

Washington  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 2 Democratic

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Maria E. Cantwell
FEC S8WA00194
  Candidate Democratic     Mandingo Earth Einstein
FEC S4WA00540
  Candidate Democratic     John Peterson
FEC S4WA00532

Class 3  
    Democratic     Pano Kroko Churchill - lost primary
FEC S6WA00438
    Democratic     Sam Cusmir - lost primary
FEC S2WA00502
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Patricia L. "Patty" Murray
FEC S2WA00189; 13 Jul 22; Tot $10,200,826; Dsb $7,025,304
    Democratic     Ravin R. Pierre - lost primary
FEC S2WA00395
    Democratic     Mohammad Hassan Said - lost primary
FEC S4WA00474
    Democratic     Bryan Solstin - lost primary
FEC S2WA00445

West Virginia  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 1  
  Candidate Democratic     Senator  Joseph "Joe" Manchin, III
FEC S0WV00090

Wisconsin  6-year term. No Term Limit. Senate Electoral Classes
Partisan Composition: 1 Democratic, 1 Republican

Class 3  
  Candidate Democratic     Lieutenant Governor  Mandela Barnes
FEC S2WI00441; 20 Jul 22; Tot $7,004,077; Dsb $6,013,582
  Candidate Write-in; (Democratic)     Samuel Nicholas D'Amico
FEC S2WI00300

Political Parties    Parties appear in parenthesis and italics when a candidate receives the endorsement of a given Party and/or official sources indicate a candidate's association with a particular Party but only where the Party in question does not appear on the actual ballot as such.

Major Parties
  Democratic
  Democratic-Farmer Labor
  Democratic-Nonpartisan League
  Republican
Major Third Parties
  Constitution
  Green
  Libertarian
  Pacific Green
Other Third Parties
  Alaskan Independence
  Alliance Party
  Aloha 'Āina
  Approval Voting
  Bull Moose
  Conservative
  Green Mountain
  Independent American
  Independent Party of Florida
  Independent Party of Oregon
  Keystone
  LaRouche
  Liberation
  Political Synergy
  Progressive Party of Oregon
  Socialist Equality
  Socialist Workers Party
  United Utah
  Unity
  Working Families
Independents
 
  Independent
  No Party
  No Party Affiliation
  No Party Preference
  No Political Party
  Nonpartisan
  Other
  Unaffiliated
  Undeclared
Write-in/Scattered/otherwise not readily classifiable
  None of these candidates
  Not readily classifiable
  Write-in
 

Notes

Candidates for office appear on this page in italics where 'The Green Papers' does not yet have independent confirmation from a legal election authority that the person has been officially certified to appear on the ballot.


"FEC" indicates the Federal Election Commission (FEC) Campaign Finance Summary.

When available, we post each candidate's FEC identification number, the date of their most recently filed Report of Receipts and Disbursements, their "Tot" [Total Receipts (contributions received or what came in: FEC Form 3, Line 16, Column B)] and their "Dsb" [Total Disbursements (expenditures or what was spent: FEC Form 3, Line 23, Column B)]. A link is provided to the Federal Election Commission's Summary Report for those who might wish to explore the details.

If a candidate raises or spends $5,000 or less, he or she is not subject to FEC reporting requirements.


Senate Class

Class 1 seats begin their terms at noon on 3 January 2019 and end their terms on 3 January 2025. The next regular election for these seats is in 5 November 2024.
Class 2 seats began their terms at noon on 3 January 2015 and end their terms on 3 January 2021. The next regular election for these seats is 3 November 2026.
Class 3 seats began their terms at noon on 3 January 2017 and end their terms on 3 January 2023. The next regular election for these seats is 8 November 2022.

For more information on Senate Classes refer to UNITED STATES SENATE: Electoral "Classes".


Article I, Section 3, clause 2 of the Constitution of the United States reads as follows:

"Immediately after [the Senate of the United States] shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year..."

Pursuant to this Constitutional provision, a three-Senator Committee was appointed by the Senate on 11 May 1789 to come up with a plan to carry out the requirements of that provision; this Committee reported to the Senate on 14 May 1789 a plan to divide the then 20 Senators (there were 10 of the 13 original States represented in the Senate at the time- each having 2 Senators: North Carolina and Rhode Island had yet to ratify the U.S. Constitution, while New York had so ratified but had failed to elect Senators as of that date) into the requisite three electoral Classes: under this plan, three groups of Senators (set up in such a way so as no State had its two Senators in the same group) were to be listed and the first Senator on each list (a list which was set up geographically north-to-south in the manner in which the Electoral Vote for President was counted before Congress at that time, so that two of the first Senators on these lists were from New Hampshire and the third was the first Senator in alphabetical order from Massachusetts) was to each blindly draw a piece of paper numbered either "1", "2" or "3" out of a box in the possession of the Secretary of the Senate. This plan being agreeable to the Senate and so approved, the drawing of lots in this manner was carried out the following day (15 May 1789)- such lot drawing ultimately determining that, to start with, Classes 1 and 2 were to have 7 Senators each and Class 3 was to have only 6 Senators.

When New York finally seated its two Senators during the ensuing Summer, there was another lot drawing (actually a double-lot drawing) on 28 July 1789 to determine the Classes for these seats: since one of the seats had to be Class 3 to make it equal in number to that of the other two Classes so far, the two New York Senators each blindly drew between two pieces of paper, one marked "3", the other which was blank- after this, there was a second lot drawing in which the New York Senator who had drawn the blank paper blindly drew again between two pieces of paper marked "1" and "2": he drew "1" so that New York would henceforth have Senators of electoral Classes 1 and 3.

When North Carolina seated its two Senators after ratifying the Constitution on 21 November 1789, there was yet another lot drawing (on 29 January 1790) in which North Carolina's two Senators each blindly drew between pieces of paper marked "2" and "3" (since there were now 12 States and, thus, 24 Senators: 24 being equally divisible by 3, there would now have to be 8 Senators in each of the three Classes to fulfill the Constitutional provision that, as nearly as was practicable, one third of the Senate be elected every second year).

After Rhode Island- the last of the 13 original States- finally ratified the Constitution on 29 May 1790 and subsequently seated its two Senators that Summer, there was yet one more lot drawing in the First Congress (on 25 June 1790) in which Rhode Island's two Senators blindly drew between pieces of paper marked "1", "2" and "3": one Senator drew "2", the other drew "1"- thereby determining electoral Classes 1 and 2 as those for the Senators from this State. When Vermont was admitted to the Union as the 14th state on 4 March 1791, there was again a double lot drawing as there had been for New York. From that day until this, whenever a new State has been admitted to the Union, these types of lot drawings (the type determined by the necessity of keeping the number of Senators in each electoral Class as close to one third as possible at the time of said lot drawing) between the new State's first Senators is held before the Senate to determine in just which of the three electoral Classes that State's Senate seats will be placed from then on.


 


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